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1. What are the essential parts of a signaling pathway? (1)The initial signal(2)The receptor that binds the signal(3)The signaling molecule or molecules that transmit the message(4)The effector or effectors that result in a short-term or long-term cellular change2. How could activating a transcription factor cause long-term cellular changes? 3. What roles can phosphorylation play in protein function?4. What is the enzymatic activity of a kinase and of a phosphatase?