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1Advanced Binding and some Binding Typology Part 1 1. Basics: Reminders Here are some relevant examples of relations we talked about previously. (1) Maryjleft after shej,khad lunch (2) If hisj, kmother agrees, Johnjwill sing (3) Everyboyjsaid hej,kwas sick (4) Junoklooked at herselfkAs we saw, we need to distinguish between several types of expressions: a. Anaphors: Reflexive/Reciprocals: xself, each other, one another, (perhaps PRO?),.. b. Pronouns: she, they, me, his, (perhaps PRO?), etc.. c. Everything else, which we called R-expressions Among R-expressions, we distinguished between referential expressions, which point to some real or imaginary, concrete or abstract object, and non referential expressions which do not. Coindexing between referential expressions means coreference this is for example what happens in (1) or (2). Coindexing involving a non referential expression as in (3) denotes a relation of referential dependence which we will not discuss in detail but is intuitively clear enough for our purposes. The reason why we distinguished among these expressions is that they behave differently from each other. We can see this by looking at coindexing possibilites in simple cases. In English, we found two types of situations: There are contexts in which anaphors require coindexing, while pronouns and R-expressions prohibit it: (5) a. Shej/ [Every girl]jsaw herselfj/*herj/ *Susanjb. Theyk/Manyksaw [each other]k/ *themk/ *SusankThere are contexts in which R-expressions prohibit coindexing while anaphors and pronouns allow it (6) Theyksaw theirkbrother / *[John and Mary]k’s brother / [each other]k’s brothers The first case shows that anaphors have some property A and the other two do not (they have property –A). The second case show that R-expressions have property R, while the other two do not (they have property –R). No binary distinction will suffice to describe this as the following table illustrate: Property+A -A +R R-expressions-R AnaphorsPronouns To account for the behavior of these expressions, we have formulated the Binding Conditions ( see chapter 8, and section 9.3 and 11.3 of the textbook), as follows. We have introduced the notion of binding: (7) A DP1 is boundby another DP2 just in case DP2 c-commands DP1 and they are coindexed. A DP which is not bound is free.
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