APPH_2B3753_2Bcranial_2Bnerves - Cranial Nerves Cranial...

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Unformatted text preview: Cranial Nerves - - Cranial nerves: 12 pairs Classified as sensory, motor or mixed First two pairs attach to the forebrain Remaining ten pairs attach to the brainstem Number I-XII Olfactory bulb, termination of olfactory nerve (N I) Olfactory tract Mamillary body Optic chiasm Optic nerve (N II) Basilar artery Infundibulum Oculomotor nerve (N III) Pons Trochlear nerve (N IV) Trigeminal nerve (N V) Abducens nerve (N VI) Facial nerve (N VII) Vestibulocochlear nerve (N VIII) Vertebral artery Glossopharyngeal nerve (N IX) Cerebellum Vagus nerve (N X) Medulla oblongata Spinal cord Hypoglossal nerve (N XII) Accessory nerve (N XI) a The inferior surface of the brain as it appears on gross dissection. The roots of the cranial nerves are clearly visible. Olfactory nerve (I) - - - Sensory Sense of smell Olfactory bulbs that terminate into filaments piercing the cribriform plate (olfactory foramina) of the ethmoid bone. Clinical: person is asked to identify an odor Anosmia: lack of smell Optic nerve (II) - - Sensory Vision Not a true nerve but an extension of the brain. Ensheathed in all three meningeal layers. Begins at the retina, enters optic canal, converges at the optic chiasma, partial crossing over of the fibers to enter the thalamus. Optic radiations take impulse to the visual cortex in the occipital lobe. Eye Olfactory bulb Olfactory tract OPTIC NERVE (N II) Optic chiasm Pituitary gland Optic tract Lateral geniculate nucleus (in thalamus) Mesencephalon (cut) Optic projection fibers Visual cortex (in occipital lobes) Oculomotor Nerve (III) - Motor Motor fibers to the 4 of the six extraocular eye muscles. - Superior, inferior, medial rectus, inferior oblique - Exits superior orbital fissure Eyeball movement Pupillary constriction in the presence of bright light (miosis) - - Superior oblique muscle Superior rectus muscle OPTIC NERVE (N II) Optic chiasm OCULOMOTOR NERVE (N III) TROCHLEAR NERVE (N IV) Trochlea Levator palpebrae superioris muscle Trigeminal nerve (N V), cut Inferior oblique muscle Vestibulocochlear nerve (N VIII), cut Inferior rectus muscle Ciliary ganglion Medial rectus muscle Lateral rectus muscle (cut) ABDUCENS NERVE (N VI) Facial nerve (N VII), cut Trochlea Nerve (IV) - - - - Motor Movement of one eye muscle: superior oblique muscle Downward and lateral movement of the eyeball. Smallest of the cranial nerves, longest intracranial nerve and only nerve to exit the brainstem dorsally. Exits superior orbital fissure Superior oblique muscle Superior rectus muscle OPTIC NERVE (N II) Optic chiasm OCULOMOTOR NERVE (N III) TROCHLEAR NERVE (N IV) Trochlea Levator palpebrae superioris muscle Trigeminal nerve (N V), cut Inferior oblique muscle Vestibulocochlear nerve (N VIII), cut Inferior rectus muscle Ciliary ganglion Medial rectus muscle Lateral rectus muscle (cut) ABDUCENS NERVE (N VI) Facial nerve (N VII), cut Trigeminal nerve (V) - - - Mixed Largest cranial nerve Sensory to the face, controls muscles of mastication (temporalis and masseter) Three divisions: V1- Ophthalmic division V2- Maxillary division V3- Mandibular division Nucleus located in the pons Trigeminal also controls your cornea reflex blink CN V: The Trigeminal Nerve Function Ophthalmic: sensations from the forehead, eyelids, and nose Maxillary: sensations from lower eyelid, upper lip, and cheek Mandibular: controls mastication Foramen Ophthalmic: superior orbital fissure Maxillary: foramen rotundum Mandibular: foramen ovale Superior orbital fissure Ophthalmic branch Semilunar ganglion Supraorbital nerves Ciliary ganglion Foramen rotundum Pons TRIGEMINAL NERVE (N V) Maxillary branch Infra-orbital nerve Foramen ovale Lingual nerve Mental nerve Submandibular ganglion Otic ganglion Mandibular branch Pterygopalatine ganglion Abducens (VI) - - Motor Innervates the lateral rectus muscle of the eye Moves eyeball laterally Exits superior orbital fissure Facial Nerve (VII) - Mixed Exits at the stylomastoid foramen Controls muscles of facial expression Controls lacrimal and salivary glands Taste of anterior 2/3 of tongue Bell’s palsy; unilateral facial paralysis Pterygopalatine ganglion Greater petrosal nerve Geniculate ganglion FACIAL NERVE (N VII) Temporal branch Pons Zygomatic branches Posterior auricular branch Stylomastoid foramen Buccal branch Chorda tympani nerve (with mandibular branch of N V) Mandibular branch Lingual branch (with lingual nerve of N V) Cervical branch Submandibular ganglion a Origin and branches of the facial nerve Vestibulocochlear Nerve (VIII) - Sensory Vestibulo branch: equilibrium Cochlear branch: hearing Travels through the internal acoustic meatus Tympanic cavity (middle ear) Semicircular canals Vestibular branch (N VIII) Facial nerve (N VII), cut Internal acoustic canal VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE (N VIII) NV Pons N VI N VII Medulla oblongata Tympanic membrane Auditory tube Cochlea Cochlear branch (N VIII) N IX N XII NX N XI Glossopharyngeal Nerve (IX) - - - Mixed Fibers emerge from medulla and exit the jugular foramen. Innervates part of the tongue and pharynx Taste for bitter on the posterior 1/3 of the tongue (Bitter Back 9) Swallowing and gag reflex Branch to carotid sinus (baroceptors) Pons N VII Otic ganglion N VI NV N VIII GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE (N IX) Medulla oblongata Inferior (petrosal) ganglion Superior (jugular) ganglion Pharyngeal branches Lingual branch Parotid salivary gland Carotid sinus branch Carotid body Carotid sinus Common carotid artery Vagus (X) “the wanderer” - - - Mixed Only cranial nerve to extend below the head and neck into thorax and abdomen Heart rate, breathing and digestive function (parasympathetic) Sensory from the viscera Recurrent laryngeal nerve branches innervate larynx (voice box) VAGUS NERVE (N X) Pons Superior pharyngeal branch Medulla oblongata Auricular branch to external ear Inferior ganglion of vagus nerve Superior laryngeal nerve Superior ganglion of vagus nerve Pharyngeal branch Superior laryngeal nerve Internal branch External branch Recurrent laryngeal nerve Cardiac branches Cardiac plexus Right lung Left lung Liver Anterior vagal trunk Stomach Pancreas Spleen Celiac plexus Colon Small intestine Hypogastric plexus Spinal Accessory Nerve (XI) - - Motor Innervates trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscle Exits jugular foramen Clinical: ask patient to shrug shoulders against resistance HYPOGLOSSAL NERVE (N XII) ACCESSORY NERVE (N XI) Internal branch: to palatal, pharyngeal, and laryngeal muscles with vagus nerve Intrinsic muscles of tongue Trigeminal nerve (N V) Medulla oblongata Cranial root of N XI Spinal root of N XI Styloglossus muscle External branch of N XI Genioglossus muscle Geniohyoid muscle Spinal cord Hyoglossus muscle Hyoid bone Thyrohyoid muscle Trapezius muscle Sternocleidomastoid muscle Sternohyoid muscle Sternothyroid muscle Ansa cervicalis (cervical plexus) Omohyoid muscle Hypoglossal Nerve (XII) - Motor Tongue movements: swallowing and speech. HYPOGLOSSAL NERVE (N XII) ACCESSORY NERVE (N XI) Internal branch: to palatal, pharyngeal, and laryngeal muscles with vagus nerve Intrinsic muscles of tongue Trigeminal nerve (N V) Medulla oblongata Cranial root of N XI Spinal root of N XI Styloglossus muscle External branch of N XI Genioglossus muscle Geniohyoid muscle Spinal cord Hyoglossus muscle Hyoid bone Thyrohyoid muscle Trapezius muscle Sternocleidomastoid muscle Sternohyoid muscle Sternothyroid muscle Ansa cervicalis (cervical plexus) Omohyoid muscle Oh, oh, oh, to touch and feel very green vegetables- AH or On occasion our trusty truck acts funny- very good vehicle anyhow or Oh, Once One Takes The Anatomy Final, Very Good Vacations Are Heavenly ...
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  • Spring '14
  • LindaB.Rosskopf
  • Facial nerve, trigeminal nerve

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