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Unformatted text preview: 1. Horizontal Collectivism: Individuals see themselves as members of ingroups in which all members are equal. 2. Vertical Collectivism: Individuals see themselves as members of ingroups, which are characterized by hierarchical or status relationships. 3. Horizontal Individualism: Individuals are autonomous and equal. 4. Vertical Individualism: Individuals are autonomous but unequal. Horizontal Collectivist Scale I feel good when I cooperate with others. If a co-worker received a prize I would feel proud Horizontal Individualist Scale I often do "my own thing." One should live one's life independently of others. Vertical Collectivist Scale I usually sacrifice my self-interest for the benefit of the group. 2. I hate to disagree with others in my group. Vertical Individualist Scale 1. It is important to me that I do my job better than others. 2. Without competition it is not possible to have a good society. 1. 2. 1. 2. 1. The ability to understand C-C research is an integral part of learning about the relationship between culture and psychology. Why is it important to understand C-C research methods? 1. To be able to evaluate research 2. Be informed and critical Studies comparing cultures on psychological variable Backbone of and most common type of crosscultural study
Phase I studies in cross-cultural psychology Methodological concerns with cross-cultural comparisons
1. Equivalence 2. Response Bias 3. Interpreting and Analyzing Data 1 Similarity in conceptual meaning and empirical method between cultures that allows comparisons to be meaningful Lack of equivalence = bias Linguistic : Semantic equivalence of research protocols across various languages Measurement: Degree to which measures in different cultures are equally valid and reliable Cross-Cultural validation Sampling: Degree to which samples are representative of their culture and equivalent on noncultural demographic variables Procedural: Equivalence in procedures used to collect data in different cultures Theoretical: Equivalence in meaning of overall theoretical framework being tested and specific hypotheses being addressed. Theories we develop are influenced by our culture. E.g., Definition of intelligence in N.A. Math skills in Brazilian street children. Systematic tendency to respond in a certain way to items or scales Types of response bias
1. 2. 3. 4. Socially desirable responding Acquiescence bias Extreme response bias Reference group effect 1. Socially Desirable Responding: tendency to give answers that make self look good 2. Acquiescence bias: tendency to agree to items 3. Extreme response bias: tendency to use ends of a scale 4. Reference Group Effect: tendency to implicitly compare themselves to others in their group 2 1. Effect size analysis 2. Cause-effect versus correlational interpretation 3. Cultural Attribution Fallacies 4. Researcher bias 5. Dealing with nonequivalent data Effect size analysis: statistical procedure to determine degree to which differences in mean values reflect meaningful differences among individuals Cause-effect versus correlational interpretation: cultural groups cannot be manipulated or randomly assigned; therefore researchers cannot make causal inference that culture caused differences in psychological variable Cultural Attribution Fallacy: attributing cause of between-group differences as cultural without empirical justification Researcher Bias: researchers' interpretation of data biased by researchers' cultural filters Dealing with nonequivalent data: all crosscultural studies are nonequivalent
Preclude comparison, reduce nonequivalence in data, interpret nonequivalence, ignore nonequivalence Studies using countries or cultures as unit of analysis Data obtained from individuals in different cultures then averaged for each culture and these averages are used as data points for each culture Identification of ecological-level dimensions important because they were used as theoretical framework to predict and explain cultural differences researchers could examine relation between different ecological-level data Phase I studies in cross-cultural psychology 3 Individual-Level Study
Level of analysis Participant 1 SelfEsteem P1's scores on SE P2's scores on SE P3's scores on SE P4's scores on SE Academic Performance P1's score on Academic Performance P2's score on Academic Performance P3's score on Academic Performance P4's score on Academic Performance Ecological-Level Study
Level of analysis Country 1 SelfEsteem C1's scores on SE C2's scores on SE C3's scores on SE C4's scores on SE Academic Performance C1's score on Academic Performance C2's score on Academic Performance C3's score on Academic Performance C4's score on Academic Performance Studies with rich descriptions of complex theoretical models of culture that predict and explain differences Individualism versus Collectivism Phase III studies in cross-cultural psychology Participant 2 Country 2 Participant 3 Country 3 Participant 4 Country 4 Studies establishing linkages between contents of culture and psychological variables of interest Phase IV studies in cross-cultural psychology Types of linkage studies 1. Unpackaging studies 2. Experiments Cross-Cultural comparisons with inclusion of measurement of variable that assesses the contents of culture hypothesized to produce differences Culture as an unspecified variable is replaced with context variables (specific variables that explain cultural differences) Context variables should be measured and degree to which they account for cultural differences should be statistically tested 4 ...
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This note was uploaded on 05/14/2008 for the course PSYC 230 taught by Professor Cheah during the Spring '08 term at UMBC.
- Spring '08