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Unformatted text preview: Transforming culture into a measurable construct. THE PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTENTS OF CULTURE & 95 G 7 G @ P 9 ) @ Y G Y5d 2A 6 Y P G &BBQBSp6 Y GP B&5Bg2 e@ c G Q@ Q@ y6 P )c G Q U9@ H Q)gu 9 9 9 x w 9 `A7 v 2 P B&7 I &5BS E c G @ &7 G Y P Bgis `@ 9 9 `@ t 2 P B&7 G A gY P gf `@ 9 3 r5q 2 6A 9S G ` P U &5 a QBp6 9A &7 &I Q 9S I @ i1 9 U 2AS U H 9 h 2 C B&5 B@ P 6 g4f A@ 9A 9 3 2 QAB@ &)&5 I 2 97 6 U7 9e U5 `cA I P 9A@ a &` &Q5 &BdBTBX QP Y QI B&5 bD QA &7 GH 9 Q)5 G A H Q)6 &5B@ 2 U YRA 6 `RA Y RQAB@&5 9Q@ Q&RQA P U9 P VQA BH &BTQA QIB GH 9 G #FD 9X5 W R P U7SR P G E C B@ &8) A 97 653 2 ' &0 ! & )( % " ' &#$# ! % " Leung and Bond's Social Axioms Schwartz's values Hofstede's cultural dimensions Uncertainty Avoidance Power Distance Masculinity, Femininity Long, Short Term Orientation Individualism, Collectivism 1 Individualism Collectivism (IC) Degree to which a culture encourages, fosters, and facilitates the needs, wishes, desires, and values of an autonomous and unique self over those of a group. Power Distance Degree to which cultures encourage less powerful members to accept that power is distributed unequally Degree to feeling threatened by unknown or ambiguous situations and have developed beliefs, institutions, or rituals to avoid them Distribution of emotional roles between males and females; success, money vs. caring, quality of life Degree to which cultures encourage delayed gratification of material, social, emotional needs Uncertainty Avoidance Masculinity, Femininity Long, Short Term Orientation Cultural Dimensions: http://www.geert-hofstede.com/ World Averages: PDI 55; IDV 43, MAS 50, UAI 64, LTO 45 Values Survey: http://feweb.uvt.nl/center/hofstede/english. html Embeddedness Hierarchy Mastery Intellectual Autonomy Affective Autonomy Egalitarianism Harmony 2 Dynamic externality Societal cynicism 1 2 Not Important 1. 2. 3. 3 4 5 6 7 Very Important To succeed in life, it is important to: Respect the opinion of one' superiors. s Pay attention to the feelings of others. Think about how others would feel when deciding what to do. 4. Make sure that you do what your boss wants you to do. 5. Make sure you are liked by those around you. !" #$ %& ' ( ) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Strongly Strongly Disagree Agree A person should always be completely loyal to his/her family. If a child has worked hard to save money, he/she should not be obligated to share it with his/her mother when his/her mother is in need. Teenagers should listen to their parents' advice on dating. 1. Horizontal Collectivism: Individuals see themselves as members of ingroups in which all members are equal. 2. Vertical Collectivism: Individuals see themselves as members of ingroups, which are characterized by hierarchical or status relationships. 3. Horizontal Individualism: Individuals are autonomous and equal. 4. Vertical Individualism: Individuals are autonomous but unequal. 3 ...
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- Spring '08