Test 3 Labeled Diagrams - I Figure 1 3.1 0 Anatomy of a...

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Unformatted text preview: I Figure 1 3.1 0 Anatomy of a Representative Neuron. A neuron has a cell body (some), some branching dendrites, and a single axon. Nucleus _ ‘ _ ‘ Nerve cell body Chromaiophiiio Bubsianoe Golgi appamua Neurofiiement Mi‘iochondrion Ji Axon hillock Initial segment of axon Nenre cell body Axon (may be myalinalod) Terminal bouions Nwmgimdliar — i. Gland cells Postsynaptic cell a A neuron may innervate (I ) otl'ler neurons, (2) skeletal muscle fibers, or (3) gland cells. Synapse are shown in booties for ad: dimple. A single neuron fl MU'tiPOIi" neuron. would not innervate all three. I Figure 14.2 The Spinal Cord and Spinal Meninges White matter Ventral root Dorsal root fl Posterior view of the spinal cord shows the meningeal layers, superficial landmarks, and distribution of gray and white matter. Gray matter Dorsal root ganglion Spinal nerve Pia mater Arachnoid mater Dura mater i Monlngos ml bady Subaraohnoid Dura mater space Arachnoid Autonomic mater (sympathetic) Pia mater ganglion ' Ventral Rami root of communicantes spinal nerve Ventral ramus Dorsal ramus Spinal cord Adipose tissue in epidural Denticulate Dorsal root space ligament ganglion fl Sectional view through the spinal cord and meninges shows the peripheral distribution of the spinal nerves. I Figure 14.10 11Ie Brachlal Plexus Dorsal scapular nerve Suprascapuiar nenre Superior trunk BHACHIAL Middle lrunk PLEXUS Inferior trunk Musculocu‘ianeaus nerve E This posterior view of the brachial plems shows the location and Median nerve distribution ofthe nerve. Mambau‘ianeots nave Axilla'ynerve Lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve Branchesaf Superficial branch of radial nerve Ulnar nerve Median nerve Palmer digital nerve: nerve Deep branch of ulnar nerve Superficial branch of ulnar nerve a In this anterior view of the brachlal plexus and upper limb, the distribution of major peripheral nerves can be seen. Flightcommon (amid array Clavicle. cut and removed Braehial plexus . (CrT1) Dehord muscle Sternocleido- mastoid made, Mueculocuteneous sternal head nerve Sternocleido- mastoid muscle, clavicuhr hem Right axillary artery aver axillary nerve Median nerve Flign wbelavian Radial nerve artery Biceps brachii, long and short heads Ulnar nerve Coraoobrachialis muscle Reflector holding peclnralis maior Skin muscle (out and reflected) Right brachial artery Median nerve n This dissection shows the major names arising from the eervical and brachial plexmes. ’ Carper: Guadflgemlne ‘ Superior colllculi Inferior collicull Cerebral peduncle Trochlear nerve (N IV) Superior cerebellar peduncle Fourth ventricle Fieticular formation In floor of fourth ventricle fl Posterior view of the diencephalon and brain stem. I Figure 16.1 3 Sectional Views of the Brain Precentral gyrue Central sulcue Postcantral gyrue Clngulate gyrus Fomix Thalamus Membranous portion of epithalamus Corpus callosum Hypothalamue Septum pelluoidum Pineal gland Interventrlouler Parieto-ooolpital eulous foreman _ corpora Frontal lobe Guedrigernine Anterior Superlor colllculus oommleeure Inferior colllculue Optic chlaem Aqueduct of midbraln Mamillary body Temporal lobe Fourth ventricle Cerebellum Meeencephelon Medulle oblongata H A saglttal section through the brain Corpus Longitudinal fissure callosum Lateral Gaudate nucleus ventricles Left thalamus Putamen Internal capsule Insula Globus pallldus Fornix Temporal lobe Claustrum Cerebral peduncle Third ventricle Transverse fibers Substantla nigra Cerebeilum Medulla oblongata Fons u A coronal section through the brain I Figure 16.17 The Cenbral Hemispheros, Part II. Lobes and functional regions. Central sulcus mu— to show Insula) Primary sensory cortex Primary motor cortex (909*th 9W3) [precentrai gyrus) Somatic motor association area Somatic sensory (premotor cortex) association area Prafrontal cortex Visual association area Vlsua! cortex Gustatory cortex Insult! .. . .. ., _ Lama: New to show olfactory cortex) Auditory association area Audit rt a Major anatomical land marks on the surface of the left cry co ax cerebral hemisphere. To expose the insula, the lateral sulcus Olfactory cortex has been pulled open. — Oifactory buib. termination of olfactory nerve (N I) Oifactory tract Optic chieem Optic nerve (N II) lnfundibuium Oculomotor nerve (N III) Trocnieer nerve (N IV) Trigerninai nerve (N V) Abdueene nerve (N VI) Facial nerve (N VII) Veetibuieoecnleer nerve (N VIII) Gieseepharyngeai nerve (N IX) Vague nerve (N X) — Hypogioeeal nerve (N XII) — Accessory nerve (N XI) fl Diagrammatic inferior view of the human brain. Compare view with part (a). I Figure 16.2 Ventrlcles of the Braln.The ventricles contain cerebrosplnal fluid, which transpol messengers. and waste products. Anterior horns of Cerebral lateral ventricles hemispheres Lateral ventricles Interventrlcular foramen Thlrd ventricle Posterior horns of lateral ventricles -- Inferior horns of lateral ventricles Aqueduct of midbraln Fourth ventricle Cerebellum Medulla oblongata Central canal Splnal cord fl Orientation and extent of the ventricles as seen In a lateral view of a transparent brain The Brachial Plexus The brachial plexus is larger and more complex than the cervical plexus. It ls formed by the ventral rami of spinal nerves Cs-T1 and Innervates the pectoral girdle and upper Iimb.The ventral raml converge to form the superior, middle, and Inferior trunks. m __-— The nerves of the brachial plexus All three posterior (lvhlom uriteto Each of theee The ventral The root: of the breohiai arise from oneormoretrunka or formthepomrioroord, whilethe marksman ramiconverge pleunareforrnedbyme cords whose names indicate their anterior division of the superior and divides into an to term the ventral raml of spinal positions relative to the axillary middle mm unite to tone the Mr smarter. nerves (is-T1. artery. a large artery supplying the lateral cord. The meld oord is dvleion and a rridrle. md upperiimb. formed bye oontinmtionoifthe matador muslin. mmmmoimm division. Dorsal scapular nerve Nerve lo subclaviue muscle Sumulfl nerve The lateral cord forms the muscuio- cutaneous nerve exclusiver and, together with the medial cord, contributes to the median nerve. The ulnar nerve is the other major nerve of the medial cord. The posterior cord gives rise to the axillary nerve and the radial nerve. Lateral pectoral newe Medial pectoral nerve Subscapular nerves Axillary nerve Thoracodorsal nerve Musculooutaneous nerve Long thoracic nerve Medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve Ilium ' l’ ' / ,,// r Median nerve Ulnar nerve Radial nerve V Posterior brachial cutaneous nerve ’ ' ...
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