3_Minerals[1]

3_Minerals[1] - 1 Most Common Minerals in the Earth's Crust...

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2 Most Common Minerals in the Earth’s Crust = Feldspars!
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3 number of protons or number of electrons in a neutral atom (defines element) protons + neutrons (defines isotope (defines isotope) Ionic Bonding -Na donates electron to Cl -attraction between 2 charged ions (e.g., Na+ and Cl-)
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4 Ionic Bonding NaCl Covalent Bonding -electrons are shared between atoms -e.g., carbon atoms in diamond, Si Metallic Bonding -Metallic bonds forms between Au, Ag, Cu -Electrons are readily mobile between atoms; electron soup which flows when a perturbation of instability is generated.
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5 ‘Other’ types of Bonds/Interactions van der Waals interaction (induced dipoles) hydrogen bonds (e.g., water molecules) Bonding Determines Behavior/Properties covalent within sheet vdW covalent sheets between sheets What is a mineral?? A mineral is a homogeneous , naturally occurring , solid inorganic substance with a definable chemical composition and an internal structure characterized by an orderly arrangement of atoms , ions, or molecules in a lattice
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6 What is a Mineral? • Homogenous • Naturally occurring • Solid • Inorganic substance Orderly arrangement of atoms in a lattice (internal order) • Definable composition Minerals have internal order = a 3D network of atoms; repeatable units that make up its structure; its structure; symmetry elements EVIDENCE?? Construct an argument that minerals have internal order OBSERVATIONS? DATA?
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7 Symmetry • Elements of symmetry in art and in minerals Symmetry in Galena Symmetry Symmetry in M.C. Escher Symmetry Elements • Mirror plane – One side of a object is the mirror image of the other – Object reflects itself through a mirror plane Minerals have internal order = a 3D network of atoms; repeatable units that make up its structure; its structure; symmetry elements EVIDENCE??
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8 Evidence of Internal Order crystal form Evidence of Internal Order crystal form constancy of interfacial angles 120 o Evidence of Internal Order cleavage planes MICA
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Evidence of Internal Order cleavage planes HALITE (salt; NaCl) Evidence of Internal Order cleavage planes how many cleavage planes?? 1 Direction
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3_Minerals[1] - 1 Most Common Minerals in the Earth's Crust...

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