Study Guide - BIO 317 Principles of Cellular Signaling...

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BIO 317 Principles of Cellular Signaling Study Guide Collins/Halegoua/Leheste Fall 2007
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Review session 9/21/06 1) In a typical cell at rest b (PNa/Pk) =0.02. What will happen if b suddenly increases to 20? 2) What are the major characteristics of an Action Potential? 3) What are the phases of an action potential and how can they be explained in terms of ion permeability? 4) Explain how positive feedback plays a role in the opening of voltage-gated sodium channels. 5) What are the two strategies employed by nature to increase the speed of action potential propagation? 6) Draw an Action Potential under physiological conditions. How would the diagram change if: a) There was an increase in the density of voltage gated Na channels at the membrane? b) You blocked voltage-gated potassium channels? c) You reduced the extracellular sodium concentration?
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Review Session-9/28/06 1) What is the primary cause of diseases associated with muscle Na channels? What are some mutations that might lead to that? 2) Myotonia and paralysis are opposite symptoms. How is it possible that they are sometimes present in the same patient? 3) What is the sequence of events underlying synaptic transmission? 4) What is meant by the term quantal neurotransmitter release? 5) How is vesicle fusion coupled to Ca entry in the presynaptic terminal? 6) Ach Receptors are non-selective cation channels. How does opening of these channels lead to depolarization of the postsynaptic cell? 7) What will happen to synaptic transmission if: a) Ca is removed from the extracellular fluid? b) We knock out the gene for synaptotagmin? c) We knock out the gene for acetylcholinesterase? 8) Many biological toxins kill by targeting the NMJ. Discuss why the following would cause paralysis and death: a) Omega conotoxin, a toxin produced in a marine snail, blocks voltage gated Ca channels at synaptic terminals. b) Alpha-bungarotoxin, produced by a poisonous snake, blocks the binding site of Ach receptors. c) Botulinum toxin, a bacterial toxin, is a protease that cleaves synaptobrevin, synaptotagmin and SNAP 25.
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Review questions for Exam 1: 1) Explain the following terms: membrane potential, electroneutrality, osmotic balance, phospholipid bilayer, concentration gradient, passive vs. active transport, hydrophilic vs. hydrophobic, equilibrium potential, permeability ratio, depolarization, all-or-none action potential, undershoot, absolute refractory period, voltage sensor, myotonia, quantal transmitter release, neuromuscular junction, ligand-gated ion channel, temporal and spatial summation, agonist vs. antagonist, fast vs. slow synaptic transmission, sensory adaptation, autoimmune diseases of the NMJ. 2) True or False: a) Phospholipids are hydrophilic. b)
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Study Guide - BIO 317 Principles of Cellular Signaling...

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