Lecture Notes

Lecture Notes - Ling 165B Syntax II Koopman/Sportiche...

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Unformatted text preview: Ling 165B Syntax II Koopman/Sportiche winter 08 1/31/2008 1 Probing structures 1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 1 2 Probing Structures: Constituency Tests ................................................................................... 2 3 Probing structures .................................................................................................................... 6 3.1 Probing derived structures ............................................................................................... 6 3.1.1 Only ......................................................................................................................... 6 3.1.2 NPI Licensing ........................................................................................................ 10 3.2 Probing underlying structures ........................................................................................ 16 3.2.1 Distribution of All ................................................................................................. 16 3.2.2 Also Association .................................................................................................... 17 3.2.3 Binding Theory: ..................................................................................................... 18 3.2.4 Pronominal Binding ............................................................................................... 21 3.2.5 Quantifier Scope .................................................................................................... 23 1 Introduction In previous chapters, we have seen that sentences or fragments of sentences are structured in particular ways and that a wide range of linguistic phenomena are sensitive to such structures. We have called such structures trees, by analogy with the graphical representation we have used. Trees contain two types of information: (i) they contain information about constituency, that is about how sequences of elements are grouped together. (ii) They also contain information about the nature of these constituents and an indication of why they behave the way they do through a particular labeling convention. For example, we label a particular constituent XP (e.g. VP) to indicate that it shares properties with other XPs (e.g. other VPs) and to indicate that it behaves the way it does because it has an X (e.g. a V) as head. In addition, we have been led to the conclusion that a given sentence can be simultaneously analyzed as having different trees: what we have called surface trees, and what we have called underlying trees. This conclusion is based on the fact that lexical properties of lexical items are realized in tree structures (as they must, given the Projection Principle), sometimes locally (this has a technical meaning), sometimes not. For example, if a given lexical item LI c-selects a DP complement, sometimes this DP appear as a immediate complement of this LI in the tree...
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Lecture Notes - Ling 165B Syntax II Koopman/Sportiche...

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