Thermodynamics Notes 20

Thermodynamics Notes 20 - ME 311 FALL 2007 THERMODYNAMICS...

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ME 311 THERMODYNAMICS S. Masutani FALL 2007 1 CHAPTER 8 VAPOR POWER CYCLES The fundamental task to be accomplished by the systems described in Chapters 8 and 9 is the conversion of chemical or nuclear energy (i.e., energy “stored” in molecular or nuclear bonds), or energy resident in microscopic modes, into organized motion (KE) that can be used to perform work or act as a propulsion source. Chapter 8 focuses on vapor power plants; Chapter 9 analyzes gas turbine systems and internal combustion engines. In a vapor system, the working fluid undergoes phase changes (between liquid and gas) in the course of the process. These power cycles are heat engines: the working fluid receives energy from a “high” temperature source and discharges a portion of this thermal energy to a “low” temperature sink; the balance is exchanged with the environment in the form of useable work. (Note that the distinction between heat and work is that entropy accompanies heat transfer but does not accompany work interactions.) All resources and tools necessary to analyze these systems have already been developed in Chapters 1-6: 1 st Law; 2 nd Law; mass/energy/entropy bookkeeping techniques; equations of state and other property relationships/data. We will focus on cycles where: Initial state = final state; i.e., a quantity of matter traversing the system returns to its initial condition after transporting and transforming energy obtained from a thermal
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Thermodynamics Notes 20 - ME 311 FALL 2007 THERMODYNAMICS...

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