amnesty international palestinian women

amnesty international palestinian women - Contents: 1. 2....

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Unformatted text preview: Contents: 1. 2. Introduction Life under siege: The impact of military checkpoints, blockades and curfews on women 3 2.1 Restrictions on access to health care 2.1.1 Women forced to give birth at checkpoints 2.1.2 Fear, anxiety and other consequences for pregnant women 2.1.3 Other concerns related to access to medical care 2.2 Increased unemployment and poverty a growing burden for women 2.3 Education opportunities for girls curtailed 2.4 Restrictions on travel abroad 2.5 Increased isolation 7 8 10 11 12 14 16 16 6 3. 4. Impact of a new discriminatory law preventing family unification 17 Ill-treatment of Palestinian women in Israeli detention centres 18 The impact of house demolition and destruction of property on women 18 Occupation, conflict and patriarchy: Increased pressures and violence against women 20 Legal situation: Background 22 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Discrimination and lack of protection in law and in practice 24 "Honour" killings 27 Fighting violence against women and promoting women's rights 28 Palestinian women as perpetrators of violations 29 30 11. !!!" #" RECOMMENDATIONS To Israel To the Palestinian Authority To the international community 30 31 31 Appendix 1: Israeli and Palestinian women as victims of armed attacks Israeli women victims of Palestinian attacks Palestinian women victims of attacks by the Israeli army 33 33 34 2 Israel and the Occupied Territories Conflict, occupation and patriarchy Women carry the burden 1. Introduction $% & ' ) & $ % % ' % 0 * % % # ! # 1 & " % & 5 # * % # 1 7 ( % & ** % * % % # ! ( % ' ( & %' * "2 # # % % *# ,-. * ( ' * 8 # && & & 9 * & && & % " % ( * ( % % - ' - 9 % && " + % / ! %' ( % , ! &" + * ' !% ! * " $% # * % * % & # % ( * ' * % & * % # 2 !% % ! * 8 % & & & * # * ! !% % ( & % & % % " ( ' * % ( - * 3% 4- % % * "6 % * & ! & # * # See notably Amnesty International: Without distinction: Attacks on civilians by Palestinian armed groups, July 2002 (AI Index: MDE 02/003/2002) and Act now to stop the killing of children!, 20 November 2004 (AI Index: MDE 02/002/2004), as well as other Amnesty International reports and press releases on http://web.amnesty.org/library/eng-isr/index !' - % # *( % # % % " $% 5 * % * % * % % % % ( : 5 & ! % & ' * & ' #& # % % & " ! %' % * % ** % & % % # " $% & ' # * % ) & $ %' % ' 9 8 * % && & # ' & ! 3 ! % % ' * #4& % & !% % ! 1 % & % #" Conflict, occupation and patriarchy: Women carry the burden AI Index: MDE 15/016/2005 ; <" = & $% 9 >& & 8 % ' -6 ! # . 0. - # % # * & & % * % * % ? % & # % # * * ! ( % % % ) & $ % & ' * ,-0 ! ( * % ' ? % 7 & * * & % &' * (# % ! ", 2 - % # % ' # # & # &' #% ' & % % %' ' # ** " $% #% % ' % * % 2 %# %' % * ' % # * * % & ' " $% * ' % * % # %' % 7 * @ ,A9# # & * % ( : 5 & !% % % % & # & * ! @ ' " * ;B % * % !% * % - ! "# $ % % ' 4C ! %' & % % & ' ' % ' %' % % * % * ( ' & : 5 % ' & % 3 "< * 2 6 - & * &# ** * # % % * * ! - !% % ' & ' #" $% # % ' * 9 ' & ' !% * * ' Report of the UN Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, Addendum: Mission to Occupied Palestinian Territories (E/CN.4/2005/72/Add.4), 2 February 2005. 3 Since September 2000 the Israeli army has destroyed more than 4,000 Palestinian homes, large areas of agricultural land, hundreds of factories and commercial properties, and water, electricity, sewage and other infrastructures. Hundreds of Israeli army checkpoints, blockades, curfews and other stringent restrictions imposed on the movement of 3,500,000 Palestinian inhabitants of the West Bank and Gaza Strip have made it impossible for Palestinians to carry out ordinary everyday activities, restricting or preventing their access to their workplace and land and to education and medical facilities and other crucial services. See Amnesty International: Israel and the Occupied Territories: Surviving under siege: The impact of movement restrictions on the right to work, September 2003 (AI Index: MDE 15/001/2003) and Israel and the Occupied Territories: Under the rubble: House demolition and destruction of land and property, May 2004 (AI Index: MDE 15/033/2004). # & !% % ' # * % ' ! ' # # & % 8 * # 1 # !" * & % # ' & & & * && % ' ! & " ' # & ;& $ http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/cedaw/text/econve ntion.htm#intro 4 4 AI Index: MDE 15/016/2005 Conflict, occupation and patriarchy: Women carry the burden & ' ' "< + % % 2 9 2 % & ## % % 3 * % 2 40 % ! @ * % ) & $ - % *! !% % %' ( & * & ' % # 5 * '' " % * ! & &' # & # % & ' % ! & #' & # % ' !% % # & * % '' % '' * % % " $% ! * ) & % ) ' ? % & $ ! % % & $ & * % & # % * *' % 7 * ' % * #& % %' * % ! ( # @ * % * % 2 % # 3 24@ # * " % * * 2 ! * & %' % # #% 7 8 # & ! * ! % & * & ' % * #% " !% % % # ( # % ' * %' % % * #@ & " D * 9 ;% <( & ' " $% ! ( * # 8 & % ! % % ( ' & # % # %' ** * & * ! !% ( * ( % #* # & * #" !% ;% < * * & #% 2% % ! * % " %' % * * % !% % ' % * # " $% ** % * # * % $ ' " % !' % !% % ' ( & " % 5 ! ! % % ( * & * 7 !? % ! ** * 7 % ! & "= * *% ** #! * # * % * * ' ! !* % % % !" 6 7 &- % ( * ! % * * * !* ' # % * ")% * ' # !* % ! % # & & # ** % ' && " + # * % * ' E % % % * ' ! % % & " $% & % % % % & *' # % * % 7 * * " % ( 9 ' ! % % * # % & * % 5 * % * # % ! ' % ( : 5 & " $% 9 ! ' & * % ( ' % & % -& ' % * : 5 * % % % ! % % * ' " $% & !% ! % ! ' % % ! & & # * % % 9 " & " $% & & & * % & D % % % % 9 ' % * #? * * 2 2 & * # % & # * ! % % * * % * 1 % & * (% * ( !% % % & & % ) & &' # ** ** * % * !% * # # http://www.wclac.org/paper/Isocialpsychological%20im pact.doc & % % E % * # % %- % 5 Conflict, occupation and patriarchy: Women carry the burden AI Index: MDE 15/016/2005 % % % ! %' & % % #" * % ' & ' 1 %# * % !% % 7 * ! % 7 & % ' 3 ' > # % % % : : =% % >4- % > % 3 % ' >4 3 % % * 2 6 > 4" > % ' * % & # & 2. Life under siege: The impact of military checkpoints, blockades and curfews on women "( "< 2 ." # & ' $ * % 2 " + , % ) * ' !. % & % * & * -* # % # % % ' 8 % * % && #" $% * % & % & & * % % * ; < * & " % ) % % % * ' 4- % & = $ % ' !!% % % ! , ) * * % * % > % 3 % ' * &' ' % " % = > % ) * % ' >4 # % ! % & % % ) & # * % * % * % ! ( ' % !% % % * ( : 5 & % # 1 % & & # * % 6 % ' ' " !' " $% & & # * % % 6 % ' ' % % % & # ** # % ' # % #" . , % = > % * % ; / , *01 ) $% %# # % & & % * ' 2 & & ' & !% % ' # & % ! & & & & % ) & $ % % ! % " ' % # * % ) & ' !% % % ' % "<F ' * #E & & & % " $% # %# !% ' % % % !# - % $ ' !* " $% # % ' * * # ** " (# & # #* 2 6 3% @ 6 # * E % % & % * ' ! % G ! ! ' % ) & $ # * % ( & ( E% * ,-0 - ! % !% ** ' # * *% G ' G ! % * % " %' % * % ' * % #- & &' # & # %' # ** * % * - % 7 Human Rights Committee General Comment 27, 2 November 1999, CCPR/C/21/Rev.1/Add.9, para 18. E/C.12/1/Add.90 (para 31), 23 May 2003. 6 AI Index: MDE 15/016/2005 Conflict, occupation and patriarchy: Women carry the burden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estrictions on access to health care 2 ' ( 10 2 : 5 - ,A3.4 * % 6 % : % & # &! - % % % &; ' ' Concluding Observations of the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; E/C.12/1/Add.90 (para 19); 23 May 2003. http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/(Symbol)/b313a35031 07f1e6c1256d33002cea38?Opendocument 9 For more details see Amnesty International: Israel and the Occupied Territories: Surviving under siege: The impact of movement restrictions on the right to work, September 2003 (AI Index: MDE 15/001/2003). For more details on the fence/wall see Amnesty International: Israel and the Occupied Territories: The place of the fence/wall in international law, February 2004 (AI Index: MDE 15/016/2004) and http://www.un.org/unrwa/emergency/barrier/index.html 11 See for example the World Bank report: Four Years Intifada, Closures and Palestinian Economic crisis. An Assessment, October 2004. 7 Conflict, occupation and patriarchy: Women carry the burden AI Index: MDE 15/016/2005 % & 5 " . $% & % % % # % % 8 % 32 %# % * && % ' 7 < & & & 32 % % & 004? ' & 32 && # # * # * 0/ 4? % % * % -& #- ! # % %# 7 & % ( & " !' - % % & " > @ 5 # "2 3 3 4 " ' & > @ ' % * ' & 5 4 4 4 - % & .F4" # 6 34 3 4 5 4 # & & ' * " % ! % * # @ 34 4 3 4 3 4 4 4 7 2 ! ( % * ( 2% * & $% # * % ( & % ' # ** % % .09# 9 J % J 4 &' ! % * ** * % " %- % % ! ' 2 % *@ - !% % ! * . & " & J % % % 9> % % # 5 ' % ( * 7" % ( & * % 7 8 34 7 34 ' 4 ! # "4 6 4 3 & 34 6 4 7 4 2.1.1 Women forced to give birth at checkpoints "# ' ! " # ! 2 ,A304 /6 %: ' ' ' ) ./2 . ,$ % ! ! * ' % % # % 6 ( % ( & * * % & " # * ! " % ! &# 5 !% 2 # ' % ' ! ( % % # % * ( % " $! #9 9# 9 > ! % %% % *& #% # " % % ! % % > % % 6 ( % ( & ! % ' % ! * = % & % % ( & ! ! * % % % "> * % % ( & * ! * % ' The Fourth Geneva Convention for the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War is the main body of international humanitarian law which Israel, as the occupying power in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, is obliged to abide by. 12 % % * & - %# & % % ( & " % # # % % ! % &( & # % & " (# % ! % #" 8 AI Index: MDE 15/016/2005 Conflict, occupation and patriarchy: Women carry the burden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onflict, occupation and patriarchy: Women carry the burden AI Index: MDE 15/016/2005 3 > ; 4 ! % * % - !% % ' -+ # * & % # ' % % 5 " % * % & % ' * ! ( ! @ 5 - !% % % % % ' % % *9 ' " 2 ! % " # * # % ( & !% % % # - ** % & & ' # # # # # 4 = ) ; 4 8 $% & & # * ! !% ' ' * % # % ( & !% % & % ! - !% % % & % ' " ' * ' # * !( * % ! % 1 # ( % % % 1 # % & " # !% % # & * ! % & & # & ' * % !% ' ! " % # % ! & * ! & & % % % ( & ' ! % % # # " % # % 5& % * ( # (& ! * & %' * * * % % ( & % % % " 2.1.2 Fear, anxiety and other consequences for pregnant women $% * ! 7 ! %' 7 & % & * # " $% & & % % % *# ! " % ! ( & % %% & 1 * 7 ! % % $ " $% ' * 7 # * % & # & & % " " *; ' ;* ' & " *%' * & % * * ' %% # * * % ) & % * 0 , ( 5 ))) ) 4 ) 2 ,6 % ' ? ' ' #!, 3 -! * ! %' # % % # ! ' %" !% % ' ' ! # # # ! % % % * % % & " !' - % & * ! % %# %' ' % #%# # %' % % ' % * ! ( ( % " 2 * & % % ' & ' " !% Safe Childbirth, Institute of Community and Public Health, Birzeit University, 2004. % The Policies and Practices of Normal Childbirth in Maternity Facilities in the West Bank: Implications for 13 10 AI Index: MDE 15/016/2005 Conflict, occupation and patriarchy: Women carry the burden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ther concerns related to access to medical care $% ' 9 % % ! % % % "+ # % #% * % - %# G ' % # % * % *& 4 # *; ;; 8 ! F %' % %&' * % % % & !% % % % * & % ! & * % ! 9 * % % * # * % ! " # *& %' * %' " ' ' % ( & # * % ' & ! & # & % 9 # * * !% " $ 3 See statement of Dr. Ilan Gal of the Lis Maternity Hospital in Tel Aviv, quoted by Gideon Levy in his article And the twins died in Ha'aretz, 8 January 2004. 14 15 16 Amnesty International interview, May 2004. http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=1335 8&Cr=&Crl= 17 See Physicians for Human Rights-Israel at: http://www.phr.org.il/phr/article.asp?articleid=73&catid= 45&pcat=45 11 Conflict, occupation and patriarchy: Women carry the burden AI Index: MDE 15/016/2005 % ,F # * & % & * % % % # % ' # " ( * %' # % & % " 6 7 &* % : 5 & 8 # & # ! ** * " 2 %# * > % 9 - % * '' * & % : 5 & # , 9C I& F 9F0I " ' % % & % " % # % ** * * & % ) & $ ** ' # & ' * % * * % % ! ( %# & ' * % % % ! ( & % & & %' 5 # # % #" ; % # & *) ;9 <" $% )** 6 ! 9: 3 )4- J ! !% * % . C")C N% + % * % * % -& % & * % ' % ( : 5 & ' !% ! ' % ) & $ * * & # % " * % : 5 &%' * & # & * 8 & # * % ! % : 5 & #& - % #& * & * % : 5 & " $ # * ="2"- ,A9# 9 * % M % : 5 & . 0 ;4 & ' 0 1 ( *; ;> 4 4 9 4 4 <" ! # . 0* ' #& #* 4 & 4 ! .J C5 # F.9# 9 !% % % ' ** * % ( # % * G ! # % #- H % & ' # % #* % % (' * 6 % * K 8 # " & . C % # * % % % % ! ! " $% ' # % # % % % % * @ * + - % + *5 !% ( ' M - !% % % % : " % 2 # " : 4 4 4 3 D & 4 4 4 ' # & % % : 5 & . J : 5 * : 5" 2.2 Increased unemployment and poverty a growing burden for women ;4 "< 2 @ > " 3.4> % -3 % !' - % 2 % ' >4 /F ! ( * % A * % * * - "The situation of workers in the occupied Arab territories", Report of the Director-General of the International Labour Office (ILO) to the International Labour Conference, 92st session, June 2004. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/ilc/ilc9 2/pdf/rep-i-a-ax.pdf 19 For more details see: New Orders in Barrier Enclaves: 11,400 Palestinians need permits to live in their homes, B'Tselem, 2004, http://www.btselem.org; and UNRWA Reports on the West Bank Barrier, e.g. Case Study: The Permit System: The Case of Jayyous and Falamyeh, Qalqilya Governorate, May 2004. http://www.un.org/unrwa/emergency/barrier/case_studies /permits.pdf 18 12 AI Index: MDE 15/016/2005 Conflict, occupation and patriarchy: Women carry the burden 4 4 4 % & 1 # &' "2 #@ 6 % & - ' # % N % + % 4 5 / % 3 4 / 8 8 & & @ * & ! ( & # !" % ! ( $% & " ! * % % % % & & %' ! * # & * ! # E % & * 1 " 2 ! %' * ( &1 ( * !% % ! & % ' ; # % G % % % ! ' % & & & % " # % & ( < 7 & #" % # % ( - # . 0 % % % % ** *% * & % % ' # " !% ' & *! # #* & % * %# * # % !. $% 1 # * ! & & # % % " #- % & & % * % ! % & % # * & %' & % & " !' * % ! @& & % 0"AI * ! ' .0 # " $% % ' ! @& & % "0I" % 2 45: ? @ $# < ' 0 1 2 )** 3 )4 ' 2 ;B ,) 4 3 ) 5 ))) ) ,6 @ * * & * % # % % % !% % ! %' # ! ( % % # % % % & !% % & ! @ % " $% & # &' # % * % # ' % & % * # %' * # * * ! 9 & &! & 1 % % ' HH " 2 < *) $% % & * % % * # & # ! ( * % E % ! * & & % E ;4 ' "< ' - "The impact of armed conflict on Palestinian women", by Eileen Kuttab and Riham Barghouti, 2002. 21 See footnote 18. 20 13 Conflict, occupation and patriarchy: Women carry the burden AI Index: MDE 15/016/2005 >& # % 3 !% @ 2 4.. * * ! ( * ' 2 % * & # " % ! ' ( * % $% # # % % # 7 & 7 & % & ' & # ! ' * ( " 2 "/ 4 @ $3 / @$ - 4 3 : 4 E 4 3 4 3 4 @$ 4 / 48 8 3 4 4 4 8 3 3 4 < 3 $ 3 - ? * % : 5 4 * ' & ' !% !% %# % * * % % * " ! ( &1 !% % & % & 2 !% ! ( % % * % * % % ( * % * #" $% * # %# %' & * ! ( * % ( & ( 7 " 6 ! ( % % * * % * % ( & * ! * 7 #" & %# % * ! # J % ' % % ( % % %' & ' J - ' % % 6 & & * * # * # " % ! ( % %* J % & % ' % # % * ( * % % % 8 % % ( & %J * ! ( % * " ! ( ! ( % % ( & % ( J % "2 - !% % * % % ( & % - # % % ( J % * %' ! ( % % &# * % % ! # % % > %" . % > # 8 2 4 - 2.3 Education opportunities for girls curtailed ;( $ ( 3 6 4 $ ( ' $ ' < ., 4 34 ! !% * %# * # % "+ # #% 1 # % ( & ' * % !% ' &# * # ! %' ' * ' % ( % ' # % " 6 # ! % # % % ! !% % ' #' & 8 - 3 "The Second Palestinian Intifada: Social and Psychological Implications for Palestinian Women Resulting from the Israeli Escalation of Violence", WCLAC, August 2001. http://www.wclac.org/intifada/intifada.html 22 General Comment 13 (1) of the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, E/C.12/1999/10, 8 December 1999. 23 14 AI Index: MDE 15/016/2005 Conflict, occupation and patriarchy: Women carry the burden !% * 1 ( % ( & ! ( % # " $ & # & C 0 & # ! ' ' ( ' ' % ! " .C & - # %' % * % ' "# % % * % E ' % ( & * # * 8 " * #- % ! .0 ' ' ' # * % * % % " ! "& : % ,3 4 * % % * % ' < # & * ! ! ( * * ! % ' ' # % * # ' ' ! !# & % ** 9 5 % * * * > 1% = & 4 , 5 ))) * ! * ,6 0 $% 8 % % ' # $% & * % % & *2 >- !% % 5 % ' # - !% % ! % * & %# %" * - % ( % ":' % % # * ! % % * & % * % 1 ** & # & * < 3 & < * The Impact of Armed Conflict on Palestinian Women, Eileen Kuttab and Riham Barghouti, in Review of Women's Studies 2002, published by the Institute of Women's Studies, Birzeit University. 25 % % * * ! % * % * 2 ! % 24 < < & ' # !% % &' # ** &# * ' % # & 5 ' # * %# 7 & & & %# #" % ' ' ! % 7 & % % & * - & # * #' !#* < ( < : 4 At al-Najah University in Nablus, one of the largest in the West Bank, most of the students are from outside Nablus. Whereas five years ago 90% of them lived at home and commuted to university daily, now more than 80% have to live in the town. 15 Conflict, occupation and patriarchy: Women carry the burden AI Index: MDE 15/016/2005 4 ! * @ 9= 1% #- = - % % " $% # & % ' % % % ' & ** 9= 1% ' #% & & % & * # # !% % % % !% ! %' ' #- % ' * % ' % & * # % ! % ! " % ' 7 4 3 3 3 @ ' 7 4 3 % 8 8 3 % 4 4 3 - & #! 2.4 Restrictions on travel abroad $ & ($ 5 * ** % ! % * % & %# % ! % & " @$ 4 ) : 8& 4 4 / @ $ B "< % : 5 & #& 7G # * -0 !% ' % : 5 & " # % % %' * 8 # % >* % * # ! ( - ' % * % & ' * % * ' " $% & & * % * # ! (% * * 7 7 & # * ' % " ** - & # * % #% ' % " * + : 5 % !! - % % * "2 * % @ > % 3 % >4 4 $% > * % % # & * & 4 4 4 4 48 * $ ( * ;/ J 8 4 4 E 3 8 <" ! ' 4 4 4 4 4 4 & C 2.5 Increased isolation % % ! G ' % !* - ! " $% ! ** ! * % * & & ** # ** 1 % !% % % ' & * % & %' % ! * ! (" * # * 2" * : 5 # ;4 *; ;> : ' @$ 4 4 2 , # 4 8- & ' & $ # &' % , ** J ' % 9# 9 % ' * ' * 3 4 *; 4 ;) : 5 ! % % % % % & # ;4 E @$ / - - 16 AI Index: MDE 15/016/2005 Conflict, occupation and patriarchy: Women carry the burden 2 - <" F % & ** % * * % * & & # ' # *! 3 %' !% ' ! # * * & #" &* * % ( % % % * * % * J % % $% * 4 ! 3 <" !% 4 4 4 4 * % % " # & & & ! % % % * & & & # * ** % G ! % % % ** ** " ** ! ( % ! !% %& ! % % @* #" % * #' " %' * ' ! % % & ; #< * * %# 7 & ( % ) & $ & * % % !% !% ' % 3. Impact of a new discriminatory law preventing family unification J# . , % & & ! * # * * 5 * % ) & $ "./ $% ! 5 & !% % % & & * # #. . * #* % " $% ! 7 & # 5 * - * % !% # * % ) & $ " $% = % * > 3 > 4% % ! % * & ".F & # - * = - % * % % # ;4 8 * J % * # * & ' ! %% % J 4 4 4 8 4 8 4 4 4 4 8 4 E 4 ' % %# ! %' $ & 7 & * !% % % * * ( !% ' * J " # *% - % * ' # & * J % % % ( ' !# 4 6 * * %# ( % ) & * % % ") & & * %# & ' # ! * % % ' % ' % % % % % % % % % % % * ( % % % ".A 2 # & " 4 E 6 E ' < Citizenship and Entry into Israel Law (Temporary Order) 5763 2003, passed on 31 July 2003. 27 See Decision 2-63 and 2-65 of the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, 22 August 2003 and 20 August 2004. 26 In its General Comment 28, the Human Rights Committee held that "[t]he obligation to ensure to all individuals the rights recognized in the Covenant, established in articles 2 and 3 of the Covenant, requires that States parties take all necessary steps to enable every person to enjoy those rights. These steps include the removal of obstacles to the equal enjoyment of such rights, [...], and the adjustment of domestic legislation so as to give effect to the undertakings set forth in the Covenant." Human Rights Committee General Comment No. 28 (The equality of Rights between Men and Women), 29 March 2000. In line with this requirement, the Israeli authorities should give effect to their obligation to uphold custody arrangements. 28 17 Conflict, occupation and patriarchy: Women carry the burden AI Index: MDE 15/016/2005 ! ! & ! % !% 8 8 2 + - 4. Ill-treatment of Palestinian women in Israeli detention centres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he impact of house demolition and destruction of property on women + % &' C% -% & & %' # % ) & $ % * # " $ * % % ! % -% ' " $% ' & ' #" .H $% * % % # # & % % * - % * * % #@ 5 " *& ' # # % % & * * & & % * %' & ' * * % %' ' # % %#* % " $% % % 2 # % #% ' % % % % % ! # ( % * % # @ * #% Most of the houses destroyed by the Israeli army were the homes of refugee families who were expelled by Israeli forces or who fled in the war that followed the creation of Israel in 1948. 29 18 AI Index: MDE 15/016/2005 Conflict, occupation and patriarchy: Women carry the burden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ee Amnesty International: Israel and the Occupied Territories: Under the rubble: House demolition and destruction of land and property, May 2004 (AI Index: MDE 15/033/2004). 31 Noha Maqadmeh, a mother of 10 children who was nine months pregnant, was killed when her home collapsed as Israeli soldiers blew up a neighbouring house on 3 March 2003 in a refugee camp in the Gaza Strip. On 6 April 2002, Nabila al-Shu'bi, who was seven months pregnant, her three young children and her husband and two of his sisters and his father were left to die under the rubble of their home, demolished by the Israeli army in Nablus. Her elderly aunt and uncle survived trapped under the rubble for a week and were found alive by rescue workers. 30 19 Conflict, occupation and patriarchy: Women carry the burden AI Index: MDE 15/016/2005 % %' &# * ' * ' ! % ' - !% * %' ** & * #" ! & % % % # !% ** # % * * ' @ & - !% %# ( & # * % * % * # & ' " % & & - % * &' # & * & % %& ! * # "+ % * * % * % # & & * % % " % ** %' " 8 4 G 4 4 4 4 ! $ % 3 "2 % O > % ! %' % !% % * ' &! % + ' - ! !% % * % * ' * # ' % * * % * % * & # & * 32 % * !% * % * * % #% ' ( & ** " 6. Occupation, conflict and patriarchy: Increased pressures and violence against women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ubmission to the 59th session of the UN Commission on Human Rights, March 2003. Report of the UN Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, Addendum: Mission to Occupied Palestinian Territories (E/CN.4/2005/72/Add.4), 2 February 2005. 33 20 AI Index: MDE 15/016/2005 Conflict, occupation and patriarchy: Women carry the burden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ender and the Intifada, by Penny Johnson and Eileen Kuttab, in the 2002 Review of Women's Studies, published by the Institute of Women's Studies of Birzeit University, West Bank. 35 The Second Palestinian Intifada: Social and Psychological Implications for Palestinian Women Resulting from the Israeli Escalation of Violence, by Maha Abu-Dayyeh Shamas, August 2001. Family: Violence Against Women, Women's Empowerment Project, January 2001. 37 Situation of and assistance to Palestinian Women, Report of the UN Secretary-General to the Economic and Social Council, Commission on the Status of Women, March 2004, E/CN.6/2004/4. 21 Conflict, occupation and patriarchy: Women carry the burden AI Index: MDE 15/016/2005 % # % ",A $% %' = % ' = # & * ! 1 * !% " $% & & # % % " * % ! & ! @ > % 2 & # # & !% % ! @ % 8 #! % ",H $% % > % * % % % % ;% * & < ' & @ & % * % & & * % & &# # # !" % * % ; ** ! & * #& < % ; ! * <"C %' ( % & # % % @ & # * % # %' % " % - % % # % & # *% * #" % % %& ! @ * * ! & & % % * % ! ! % " - ! * & # % % @ % & * % % " $% ! * ' - % % % !%# ! # ' ' % % ' " * 7 ! ** * 38 7. Legal situation: Background $% &7 " ( : 5 &! - % % ! % 9 # 3 7 & & - "4" 2 % ) & @ % ) & $ & H/ * % F & % & # % % # ; #< - !% % ' ** * * !% % * % - ! ' % & % ** ** #' ? ' ** & !% % - & 9 H/ ! F # E ! * % * % ) % ! * % * % % + 3 H A HCA4- J ! % ( #& ! % : 5 & E %' * # ! "C H/ F %' ! % ** % !- ! % * # & 3 % ' - % @ ##- "4 % # % - & ( % # " C. !' - % && % !% 1 ! & & # - & # & - * 7 & # &" C, # # % % & % * 1 # " % ** * #" 2 % %' 41 % & ' ! ' ( * % HHC- ( ' Palestinian Muslim men are allowed to have four wives. Polygamy remains relatively rare in Palestinian society and available information indicates that in most known cases of polygamy men have two wives. 39 Human Rights Committee, General Comment 28, Equality of Rights between Men and Women, para. 23 and Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, General Recommendation 21: Equality in Marriage and Family Relations, UN Doc. A/47/38, 4 February 1994, paras. 36 and 38. 40 The Center for Reproductive Rights and University of Toronto International Programme on Reproductive and Sexual Health Law, Bringing Rights to Bear An Analysis of the Work of the UN treaty monitoring bodies on reproductive and sexual rights, 2002, p. 40. 1 2 % # 3 24 ! & # * * % ) & $ # # % & # ' % % ' %' According to Article 64 of the Fourth Geneva Convention: "The penal laws of the occupied territory shall remain in force... the tribunals of the occupied territory shall continue to function...". 42 Muslim and Christian courts. 43 See for example: Palestinian Lawyers and Israeli Rule: Law and Disorder in the West Bank, George Emile Bisharat, published in 1989 by the University of Texas Press. And Occupier's Law: Israel and the West Bank, Raja Shehada, published in 1985 (revised in 1988) by the Institute for Palestine Studies, Washington DC. 22 AI Index: MDE 15/016/2005 Conflict, occupation and patriarchy: Women carry the burden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ccording to a series of agreements, known as the Oslo Accords, between Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), the PA was established in 1994. The Oslo II Accord established three zones in the West Bank. In Area A, the PA was to be responsible for internal security and civil affairs for example, health and education and Israel for external security. In Area B, the PA was to be responsible for civil affairs and public order, while Israel had overriding responsibility for security. In Area C, Israel was responsible for both civil affairs and security. In the Gaza Strip a similar arrangement was put in place but instead of Areas A, B and C, the division is by Yellow, White and Pink areas. A separate arrangement was made for Hebron, dividing the city into two areas, H1 and H2. 45 Evaluating the Status of Palestinian Women in light of the Beijing Platform for Action, UNIFEM, Arab State Regional Office, 2002. 44 See notably, General Recommendation 19 of CEDAW General recommendation 19, A/47/38. 29 January 1992; General Recommendation 28 of the Human Rights Committee General Comment No. 28, 29 March 2000. Also see: Amnesty International's report: Making rights a reality: The duty of states to address violence against women, June 2004 (AI Index: ACT 77/049/2004). 47 Rights Talk and the Experience of Law: Implementing Women' Human Rights to Protection from Violence, s Sally Engle Merry, Human Rights Quarterly Volume 25, Number 2, May 2003. 48 The Amended Basic Law was published in the Palestinian Official Gazette on 19 March 2003. 23 Conflict, occupation and patriarchy: Women carry the burden AI Index: MDE 15/016/2005 % %# * % 2 ' & * % ** % * % % "CH ! 8 1# * % ' * 2 % # 3 4 & ( % # % % % * ! & & " $% ' & & % 2 % % % % * ! !% % % ( % & ? * % & # % ) & $ % % % * % && & ? % % ' * % #% % % 2 % % # # % * % % 2 * * % & % " 2 ! * 1 % * ! * 7 ! " $% * %' % % ' ' ** * " $% %' # 7 * # * % * * % & %#%' #* - & # @ % 2@ ( * & & ! @ % ! 8 - * & #" % * & * % & 2& . 2 % % # #% # % 8. Discrimination and lack of protection in law and in practice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he UN Commission on Human Rights has addressed "honour killings" in the context of the right to life and called on States to "investigate promptly and thoroughly all killings committed in the name of passion or in the name of honour ... and to bring those responsible to justice before a competent, independent and impartial judiciary, and to ensure that such killings, including those committed by ... private forces, are neither condoned nor sanctioned by government officials or personnel. Report to the Social and Economic Council, Resolution 2004/37 Extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions, 20 April 2004; E/CN.4/2004/L.11/Add.4. 24 AI Index: MDE 15/016/2005 Conflict, occupation and patriarchy: Women carry the burden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iolence against Women. An Analytical Study, Ibrahim al-Masri, Palestinian Working Women Society for Development (PWWSD). 51 Mapping and analyzing the landscape of femicide in Palestinian society, by Nadera Shalhoub-Kevorkian, published in 2004 by the Women's Centre for Legal Aid and Counselling (WCLAC) with the support of the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM). 52 Amnesty International interview, September 2004. 25 Conflict, occupation and patriarchy: Women carry the burden AI Index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he area remained under Israeli military siege for several days. During the incursion the Israeli army killed scores of Palestinians and injured hundreds of others. 54 * ( ! & 3 F 2 / 4 Honour killings: 3; Attempted Honour Killings: 2; Rape: 7; Attempted Rape: 4; Sexual Harassment: 6; Suicide: 2; Suicide Attempts: 46; Female Abductions: 5. 53 26 AI Index: MDE 15/016/2005 Conflict, occupation and patriarchy: Women carry the burden * / 6 ) ; 2$ 4 2 # ;2 ? $% ! ( ) & $ 2 ? 6 4 4 & - / / !% % ' 9 ;% " & ' * * % % ' < ( * * #( ** & % "00 % * # 4 @$ 6 / ) "< 6 % ;4 K ' % 4 4 <" 3 ! * # ** G !% ( * ' % % - ' * % & ' " 2 =:) ! ( ( * # % % %( * % * #' !% % % ' %' 1 * ( " & % %' %' % % * #% E ' * % # E %' % ! ( " )% ! ( !% * # ' % #% & # % ' " % !% ( % % ! % % ' & ( % ' !% %# % ! & % % % # ! %' ;% <( J * % % ! * % %' % * * % % % " - " 9. "Honour" killings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olice sources quoted in 2003 referred to 31 cases of women and girls victims of "honour" killings the previous year, but it was not clear to which period the figure referred. 55 27 Conflict, occupation and patriarchy: Women carry the burden AI Index: MDE 15/016/2005 ' K ( % % % " % - !% % & % & % % % ! # ( % 1 % * ( * % 2 % " % ! % ! % # % % ( " % % % & % * #@ % % % % % % % ! & " $% * ! % " * % ' # % ( & " % ! - 2 #! & & % % % ' *% % @ % ( % * * ! & % *! - ! # ' ! >* # @ % ( % % % * * % * "0/ % > * # @ # & & !% % & %' % % %& % ! ' % * % 1 2 ! : ' + & % $% 1' * % & & %' # ( * % # % %& % % 5 ' 2** - % & # * 2 % * * ** *' " ** ' & % % + & @ 2** % " ! # % #% ' # ! % % + & % & & & ' # * - ! %! @ & % + # * - % . , * ! @ - % #* " ! % ( % ! % & ! ( 2 # # !% % & % *% ' " % % ! % % " % % % #- & #! & # 2 # * 2** " $% # % ! & * % *# % * 8 # & %' # # # * " 10. Fighting violence against women and promoting women's rights & % % &# & * ! ! * % ' # & @ % ' % # ! ( & ' %' ! " 5 ! !# %' ! @ % " $% ' % ! @ 5 " $% # % ' ' ' # ' %' & % ! ' ( % & % ' " ' ! @ 5 %' % !% % & ' % & ' * ! %# % % % 5 # & ' ' & ! & % & % % & #! %* - * * - " @ % 5 %' Mother kills raped daughter to restore ' honor', by Soraya Sarhaddi Nelson, Knight Ridder Newspapers, 17 November 2003. 56 % ' ' ! ! @ % ' =:) % ' & ! * ! @ % & % % % ! & " * % ' %' & ' ( ' # # * #! % % 2& ' 1 - & " $% # % ' ! ( & * &! ! % & & 9 ( & %' * % & ! & ' * % & " & ' # ! @ % 5 %' * ! (% &%& 1 ' % %& * & ' % @ % * HHC- % ! @ & HH0 * % * % * ' 3 4- 0F % & * HHA- !% % * # # ' 8 # % % * ! ! % & & In January 1996 five women were elected to the PLC, a number considered disappointingly low by women activists. 57 28 AI Index: MDE 15/016/2005 Conflict, occupation and patriarchy: Women carry the burden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alestinian women as perpetrators of violations ' ' ' " # #* $% ! 58 ! %' ( ' * % %' % ! ( ' % " %' ' ' ' * ' & 7 ' ! % ' %# ! !% % % !% % ' (- % ' Women's Rights and Islamic Family Law: Perspectives on Reform, Zed Books, 2004, Chapter 9: Agents for reform: the women's movement, social politics and family law reform, by Penny Johnson. 59 Army of Roses: Inside the world of Palestinian women suicide bombers, published by Robinson, 2004. 60 The Path to the Garden of Eden (in Hebrew only) and Interview with Amnesty International. 61 Also see the account of interviews with detained Palestinian women by Israeli journalist Manuela Dviri in the UK daily The Guardian of 7 February 2005. 62 Twenty two-year-old Reem Riyashi, mother of two small children, blew herself up at the Erez crossing on 14 January 2004, killing four Israeli security officers. 29 Conflict, occupation and patriarchy: Women carry the burden AI Index: MDE 15/016/2005 ; % 2 & % * ' " !' - % ! !% ! % ( & ! % ( ' * - %' * * & ' * < % * #@ % # % * % % % ; <! % % ' " * # ' ! ! % * % ' % ( * % #" @ ! # % 8 % * ' ' %# * * * % ! % % ! ' " /, ) * % ( ) $ * % % ! % & $ & G ! % ) * & % % 8 # ? % ( ) & ' $ 5 # 7 % * # * % % & * ' #!% % * % % $ & !% % ! % # % & & #? % & # ? # * * $ & ) % & $ !% % !& % !% % & ' #% & % & ' & & %' & * ' 1 ' ! %' !% % ' & % % & & & ' * $ RECOMMENDATIONS ! ' # ! ' ** * ' # E #E % ' " - % 2 * * % 8 # ( * # % % % & * % " % & ' * ( : 5 & * % $ ' $ @ & ! !% % * #" $% 5 %& * # ? &! * # * ( % : 5 * - % %%' & ? 9 # % & & ? * 1 - % 8 * %' % & & & $ & !# ( # 5 ? % * % To Israel $ & ) & % ' & $ * 63 % # $ * & % ! ! ? * & * ' * ! % * ! !% % % & & % && $ *# % % % )& % > % )& 2 ( & & & ! % % * ' & % % # % ' ! !% ' * % % ' & % % % # ? $ # & # &# % % ) !" & ! % % % > % - # & ! %% & $ & % * % & % 8 Amnesty International requested access to Palestinian women detainees on two occasions, in May 2003 and in September 2004. On both occasions the Israeli prison authorities refused the organization's request. In 1999 Amnesty International was allowed access to foreign sex workers victims of trafficking who were detained in Israeli jails. 30 AI Index: MDE 15/016/2005 Conflict, occupation and patriarchy: Women carry the burden To the Palestinian Authority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o the international community : ' % # % % & ! * ? % % # & ? & $ ! % % 6 % % : ! ' ' @ % % % % & % & ! & % % & # ' &! % @ % & * # $ % & & & % ) & 31 Conflict, occupation and patriarchy: Women carry the burden AI Index: MDE 15/016/2005 % & " -* % # * 2 & D 2 ! % =- % & % 5 ' P #& ( % ' * > % E !% % & 8 % 8 & * E # * ! ? P ' & & ' ! & % % & ? P6 # & # & -& % & ' * ' ! ' * ' & & 1 ! % * * ! & ' & * ' ? P & & ' & ' 7% * * * 1 & !# !% % * *! !% %' 7 & ' ? P & & ' * % & ' *' % & *! % % ' % =:) ' " & 5 - % 2 # @ 32 AI Index: MDE 15/016/2005 Conflict, occupation and patriarchy: Women carry the burden Appendix 1: Israeli and Palestinian women as victims of armed attacks 2 # % % ( # % * %' & * % % ( % # ! "/C $% % * * % ! !% % ' ( & ' ( & & # 7% % % " !% > 5 ( 3 % 3 @ &" $ ! & *' Israeli women victims of Palestinian attacks , %' (" % & & % * ( ! % ) % ( & 8 $ " ( & % %& E * % F0 ( # & %' * & & # %# %' ' % - % ' ' (" # & & - ( ! ( #& & * % % % # * ! % * (" % (# ( E ' % % %# " %# %' ( ( * 1 % & %' " % : 5 % * & * % %&% ' % % % ( ! & %' % ( * # % ! ( % * 4 + ( # % #! ' # - !% ! % % ! ' ( *: % * $ % * # ' % % ' % ** % "> ! ( % ' % ! % % % % % % * % % % ** % " $% * % % ' ! ' * #- ** % ! #" $% ! !% ( $ % % ! % ( # - ! * !% ! ! % 7% ** "$ ! ! ( * % : 5 > !% % ! ( ! % % * * ' * ( " $% & E % & > & #* % ( * $ % % " 4 % - ,09# 9 % * -! ( . = ' . % ! ! % % % % % & $% " ! ' * * * - !% + ' % # : % * !% & # % " 2 % % * % ! * % #" ) J . & % ' ( % ' % % % % ! * ( - ,09# 9 3 * - ' ! .+ #. C % : 5 & $ " & % % !% % ( % % : 5 & !% - !% & " $% & * # ) % & # % # % : 5 * ( - ! # ( & * !% % % ' & # * - % ( !% % % ' ( ! % ' % ! *6 E % &% + # L ** % * % : & #- % & 6 * % * 3 6 4% & See Amnesty International: reports and press releases on http://web.amnesty.org/library/eng-isr/index. 64 # - . ! ! % * & * # % & % % $ 2' '" $% ( % ' * / 1 . % " $% Q $ 5 4$ L - % ! * % &6 & #* % (! # * 7 * " $% ! . 9# 9 # * K 8# J " $% 7 & & * % ( ( # * ' !% & 33 Conflict, occupation and patriarchy: Women carry the burden AI Index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alestinian women victims of attacks by the Israeli army ! % ( # % # #* % ) & $ % & * % *# "+ * % ' ! ( !* # ( % ( % 9 ( * % &% & 6 / * % 91 #&& % ) & $ "$ * % * % %' 1 " ! %' ( 1 % ( % % !% ' ! ! ' " ! % % * % % !% % # # % % & * % " ' ! ( # * % " ,-. $% % # !% & % % ' % * !% % # # *# % * * % %# ( ' # ** ' ' " !' - % %' * % # % ( : 5 & ' # 2 # # & ' * % =:) - = -* 1 % ' ' * ' # ** & #" & ' ( ( * # % * 8 % % ( # / 34 AI Index: MDE 15/016/2005 Conflict, occupation and patriarchy: Women carry the burden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onflict, occupation and patriarchy: Women carry the burden AI Index: MDE 15/016/2005 Q 21 : 5 #" ( @ * # ! 1 % (6 % " % % * ! % & 0& # % *' 9 9 E ( ! * % " & 7 & % % & #* % "2 # 7 % & 9 % & % & % * % % ! - !% % # ** % " $% # & % & * % ( !% ** % ! * ' % * 8 " # ** - !% % # % & ! * * % * % 7 # % % % % ( % ! 8 #" !' 1 ' ( ! %' & * % # ! '' * % (% ' # % % ' #" ) . .- % =:) %# * > % 3 >4 % * > % 3 >4 & % & ( % ** % % : 5 & E * % # && & % ! " $% & ! 1 9. ," 2 # ' % %! & % ' && " % % ' ! ( ! & %' ( " % * % * !% # ! ( 1 " ) .. J # . .- 1 * %- % # & & 9 * 69 / * % 91 # && % % * : 5 # ( F & &% ! % 1 F % # ! % " $% * % 9 ( ! % % * 6 ' & & * !% ! % ( ! % % !* - 7 C0 % 09# 9 % " $! % % ! & # # * % * % " $% % !% & % % (! #! % .09# 9 3 4 % % % 3 * ' 9# 9 ! # A % % # 4- 4 . 3) , % ! % 3! # * 7 4 % % - ! 9 %9 9# 9 Q % F9# 9 4 ! " $% % % %% * %' ' ' 5 * (" ' ' @ * % ( .0 ' % % A9 %9 % - ; ) ( . J . , !% & %& % ' ( % !% % % # ! ' # % *: 5 # % * % * " $% * % 9 ( ! M + % Q $%- % % 2 * - !% ! ( "6 % # ! ( . % ! ! ' % " & ! % % * % '# % # % # % M % : 5 & F+ #. * 9 %9 3 ? ! ( ? % % % % ' ' % - ! ! " 2 # % % '# ! * * # % : % * ( ' * # % M "2 % * % % . 9# 9 &' 3 ? ! ' ? % % # 9 2 ! %% # "2 % # & & * % % % 7 & % & " # ! % # & * % & !% % % % ! % % % ( ! % " 5 1 1 % ,A9# 9 % & ! # 1 # & * % & % % % # % & * ' % " $! * @ % ! # 1 # % & " 5 *! 9 ( % % # % %' # ( 36 ...
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This note was uploaded on 05/20/2008 for the course PSC 400's taught by Professor Braun during the Spring '08 term at UMass Dartmouth.

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