Midterm1 Study Guide

Midterm1 Study Guide - Social Psychology Midterm Study...

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Social Psychology Midterm Study Guide Psychology as a Science  research should be theory-based 1. formulate theory 2. formulate hypothesis 3. design study 4. collect data 5. analyze data  use statistical techniques to assess whether the results are genuine or due to chance 6. disseminate results  report findings in research journal or at a conference   theory - representation of reality that allows us to account for and predict behavior; helps guide  research - theory versus phenomenon- phenomenon demonstrates something that occurs, but not  necessarily why it occurs   theory evaluation - testable/falsifiable (measurable) to show that it is accountable - fits data - parsimony- simplicity - generates impact (generates research)  theory development inductive - specific observations to broader generalizations, theories deductive - general to specific (theory  observation  confirmation) * inductive is more often used Background Issues for Research Methods 1.  Design : Experimental versus Correlational Experimental Correlational -manipulate independent variable -measure dependent variable quantifiable, comparable with numbers -random assignment key* -control key (standardization) -determine relationship between measured  variables ( -1:  ---0: no relation--- +1:  ) ↑↓ ↑↑ - no causation** * random assignment decreases the chance that there is something besides the independent variable  that is influencing the dependent variable ** correlational method can only talk about how the two quantifiable variables relate systematically; not  about  why  they are related 2.  Validity : Internal versus External  tradeoff between certainty of causation (internal) and naturalness of results (external) Internal : degree to which you are sure of the cause of the results of your study  the more experimental, the more internally valid (more sure about cause)
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 bias, lack of random assignment, etc makes you less sure  study can still be correlational and internal External : when the behavior you are observing is naturally-occurring  observing natural behavior, outside a laboratory  lab experiments are low in external validity because individuals know they are being observed  deception is a way of increasing external validity in a lab 3.  Measurement Issues Operationalization - how you choose to manipulate the independent variable and how you choose to  measure the dependent variable Manipulation checks - after person has gone through manipulation, ask questions to rule out any other  contributing factors Reliability of results - replication, measurement at different intervals, under different situations (ex: at 
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Midterm1 Study Guide - Social Psychology Midterm Study...

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