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Cell Communication - figure out to turn on genes and turn...

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Cell Communication 1. Long distance a. Hormones i. Travel through blood to tarket cells 2. Cell signaling a. Reception- b. Transduction- c. Response- cell only responds to certain chemical signals. Does not respond at all to other signals. 3. G-protein-specific one that we need to learn for signal transduction pathway. a. Signal transduction pathway- not local b. Ligands- signal molecule i. Generally a protein of some kind. c. Receptor protein- generally spans the width of the membrane. i. Designed to specifically to allow that specific molecule to temporarily attach d. “Internal machinery” i. Proteins (ex:G-protein, 2 nd messenger such as calcium ions) ii. When phosphorylate a signal transduction pathway it turns on; when de- phosphorylate it turns off. e. Protein kineases f. Transduction- signaling i. Result-ex: insulin into blood g. G-protein has a receptor site 4. Intracellular a. Steroids- interact inside pass right through the inner portion of the membrane because they are hydrophobic i. End up in the nuclear envelop. Signal transduction pathway turns on genes. Can
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Unformatted text preview: figure out to turn on genes and turn them off. 5. Genes-a. Birth not on. .until turned on…why? i. Turned on bc started producing testosterone. Genes are always there, just not turned on. When turn off…ends that. .. 6. Second Messengers a. Calcium b. Cyclic AMP c. *Epinephrine 7. Inactive protein 1 will activate. 8. Features of signal transduction pathways a. Protein phosphorylation b. Whats the point? i. Cells communicate ii. Amplify a signal c. Many involve a second messenger i. cAMP- ANALOGY- behaves like an intracellular hormone d. Target cell- when binds e. G-protein receptor…where used? i. Hormone receptors ii. Neurotransmitters iii. Vision and smell in mammals iv. Many bacteria- producing a toxin which inhibits the g-protein pathway (ex:cholera, botchulism ) v. 70-75 percent act by g-prot pathway vi. Genes can be activated and deactivated through intracellular pathways....
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