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Mechanics of Breathing

Mechanics of Breathing - a Gonads primary sex organs i...

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1. Mechanics of Breathing (Pulmonary Ventilation) a. Completely mechanical process b. Depends on volume changes in the thoracic cavity i. Diaphragm down, thoracic cavity more volume c. Volume changes lead to pressure changes, which lead to the flow of gases to equalize pressure 2. Nonrespiratory air movements a. can be caused by reflexes or voluntary actions b. examples i. cough and sneeze-clears lungs of debris ii. laughing iii. crying iv. yawn v. hiccup 3. respiratory volumes and capacities a. inspiratory reserve volume (IRV) i. amount of air that can be taken in forcibly over the tidal volume ii. usually between 2100 and 3200 ml b. expiratory reserve volume (ERV) i. amount of air that can be forcibly exhaled ii. approximately 1200 ml c. residual volume i. air remaining in lung after expiration ii. about 1200 ml d. vital capacity i. the total amount of exchangeable air ii. vital capacity=TV+IRV+ERV
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iii. dead space volume 1. air that remains in conducting zone and never reaches alveoli 2. about 150 ml 1. The Reproductive System
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Unformatted text preview: a. Gonads- primary sex organs i. Testes in males ii. Ovaries in females b. Gonads produce gametes (sex cells) and secrete hormones i. Sperm- male gametes ii. Ova (eggs)-female gametes 2. Male reproductive system a. Seminal vesicles- adds salts, sugars, fructose…creates medium b. Epididymis-maturation c. Testes-sperm cells produced d. Prostate gland- citrate, hormones, fluid i. All the fluid collectively is then called semen 3. Testes a. Seminiferous tubule i. Meiosis takes place 4. Female reproductive system a. Ovaries b. Duct system i. Uterine tubes (fallopian tubes) ii. Uterus iii. Vagina c. External genitalia 5. Ovaries a. Composed of ovarian follicles (sac-like structures) b. Structure of an ovarian follicle i. Oocyte ii. Follicular cells iii. Ovulation about 14 days 1. Ovary sitting at meiosis I iv. Uterus is preparing a secondary lining for a fertilized egg v. Menstruation vi. Meiosis II...
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