Fertilization - 1 Fertilization a Acrosomal reaction i...

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1. Fertilization a. Acrosomal reaction i. Depolarization- first barrier to allowing other sperm cells to unite with the nucleus of the egg cell 1. Fast block to poly sperm- stops initial surge of sperm cells from getting into the cytoplasm…changes in membrane potential ii. Slow block to polyspermy 1. External seal- anymore sperm cells cannot penetrate into the membrane and are deflected entirely. a. Fertilization envelope 2. Basic body plan a. Cleavage- i. Cells divide mitotic 1. Mammals- chromosomes of the two individuals don’t reunite until the start of the formation of one cell 2. Forming of blastula b. Gastrulation- germ layers are established (3 layers) i. Forming of ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm ii. The vegetal pole vs. animal pole 1. Vegetal (mammal) large cluster of yolk (polysaccharides and lipids) 2. Animal pole meiosis 2 4 potential gametes—extra chromosomes (polar bodies)are removed via the animal pole iii. Blastopore becomes the anus and the mouth (archenteron).
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