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Study Guide 3 - Chapter 40 1 Define tissue and explain...

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Chapter 40 1. Define tissue and explain where it falls in the hierarchy of structural organization. a. Animals are composed of cells. Groups of cells with a common structure and function make up tissues. Different tissues make up organs, which together make up organ systems (p.823) 2. How do the functions of the body as a whole (breathing, eating, elimination of wastes, etc.) relate to the processes that occur in single cells? 3. How does the structure of each of the following tissues relate to its function? a. Tissue - groups of cells with a common structure and function i. Cuboidal - cells specialized for secretion, make up the epithelia of kidney tubules and many glands, including the thyroid gland and salivary glands. ii. Columnar - have cells with relatively large cytoplasmic volumes, are often located where secretion or active absorption of substances is an important factor iii. Squamous - 1. Two types a. Simple squamous epithelia- thin and leaky, function in the exchange of material by diffusion. Line blood vessels and the air sacs of the lungs, where diffusion of nutrients and gasses is critical. b. Stratified squamous epithelia- regenerate rapidly by cell division near the basement membrane, pushed to the free surface as replacements for cells that are continually sloughed off. Commonly found on surfaces subject to abrasion, such as the outer skin and linings of the esophagus, anus, and vagina. Ensures that abrasion affects the oldest (outermost) cells, while protecting the underlying tissues. b. Connective tissue - i. Adipose - specialized form of loose connective tissue that stores fat in adipose cells distributed throughout its matrix. PADS, INSULATES, STORES FUEL AS FAT MOLECULES. ii. Cartilage - has an abundance of collagenous fibers embedded in a rubbery matrix made of a protein-carbohydrate complex called chondroitin sulfate. STRONG YET SOMEWHAT FLEXIBLE SUPPORT MATERIAL, CUSHIONS BETWEEN VERTEBRAE, CAPS ON THE ENDS OF SOME BONES, ABSORB CONSIDERABLE PHYSICAL IMPACT WITHOUT BREAKING.
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iii. BONE - the skeleton supporting the body of most vertebrates. Made ofa mineralized connective tissue. c. Muscle : i. Skeletal - responsible for VOLUNTARY movements of the body. 1. Fibers - bundle of strands called myofibrils 2. Striated appearance - contractile units or sarcomeres 3. Adult - has a built number of muscle cells, building muscle does not increase the number of muscle cells but rather enlarges those already present. ii. Cardiac- forms the contractile wall of the heart 1. Striated 2. Unconcious task- contraction of the heart 3. Branch- intercalated disks, signals cell to cell and help synchronize the heart beat. iii. Smooth- responsible for involuntary body activities, such as churning of the stomach or constriction of arteries. 1. lacks striations 2. found in the walls of the digestive tract, urinary bladder, arteries, and other internal organs.
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