Chapter 9 - Chapter 9 Articulations Articulation (joint):...

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Chapter 9 – Articulations Articulation (joint): place of contact between boned, between bone and cartilage, or between bones and teeth. Arthrology : study of joints There is an inverse relationship between mobility and stability in articulations. Synovial Joints Synovial joints are freely moveable. The bones are separated by a space called a joint cavity . Anatomy All types of synovial joints include several basic features- an articular capsule, a joint cavity, synovial fluid, articular cartilage, ligaments, and nerve and blood vessels. Articular capsule : double-layered capsule Fibrous capsule : outer layer; formed from dense connective tissue; strengthens the joint Synovial membrane : inner layer; lines the joint capsule Joint cavity : space containing a small amount of synovial fluid; permits separation of the articulating bones The articular cartilage and synovial fluid within the joint cavity reduce friction as bones move at a synovial joint. Lining the synovial cavity is the synovial membrane, which secretes a viscous, oily synovial fluid . The synovial fluid has three functions: 1) lubrication 2) nourishment, provide nutrients and remove waste 3) absorb shock Articular cartilage : thin hyaline cartilage layer covering all bone surfaces in a synovial joint; reduces friction, absorbs compression, prevents damage Ligaments are composed of dense regular connective tissue. They connect bone to another bone and strengthen and reinforce most synovial joints. Extrinsic ligaments : outside of, physically separate from joint capsule Intrinsic ligaments : represent thickenings of the articular capsule All synovial joints have numerous sensory nerves and blood vessels that innervate and supply the articular capsule and associated ligaments. The synovial membrane has extensive capillary bed, where the synoval fluid is produced as a filtrate of blood plasma. Synovial joints usually have the following accessory structures: Bursa : fibrous, saclike structure that contains synovial fluid and is lined by a synovial membrane; alleviate friction resulting from movement An elongated bursa is a tendon sheath, which wrap around tendons that may experience increased friction. Fat pads : often along periphery of a synovial joint; provide some protection
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Tendons : not part of the synovial joint; composed of dense regular connective tissue; provides mechanical support Types Uniaxial moves in one plane Biaxial moves in two planes Multiaxial moves in multiple planes Movement Joints of the Axial Skeleton Temporomandibular joint: articulation formed at the point where the mandibular condyle articulates with the articular tubercle of the temporal bone anteriorly and the mandibular bone posteriorly; only moveable joint between skull bones A loose articular capsule surrounds the joint and promotes an extensive range of motion. -contains an articular disc
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This note was uploaded on 05/29/2008 for the course BIOLOGY Anatomy taught by Professor Neff during the Fall '07 term at Temple.

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Chapter 9 - Chapter 9 Articulations Articulation (joint):...

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