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3_The_Central_Nervous_System

3_The_Central_Nervous_System - Neuroanatomy Neurophysiology...

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Neuroanatomy & Neurophysiology: The Central Nervous System EXSS 380 – Neuromuscular Control & Learning
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The Central Nervous System Central Nervous System (CNS) Supraspinal – superior to foramen magnum Includes cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and brain stem Spinal Cord – inferior to foramen magnum Includes various neuronal tracts and spinal nerve roots
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Supraspinal Structures The brain Largest and most complex part of the Nervous System Regions of interest Cerebrum Cerebellum Brain Stem
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Supraspinal Structures Cerebrum Largest part of the mature brain Controls higher brain functions including: Interpreting sensory information Initiating muscle contraction and movement Storing memory Reasoning Intelligence
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Supraspinal Structures Cerebral Cortex Folds of tissue called gyri (gyrus) Shallow grooves b/w = sulci Deep grooves b/w = fissures
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Functional Areas of the Cerebral Cortex Cortex divided into regions based on function (Brodmann) Somatosensory Area (postcentral gyrus) Sensation of touch, pain, temperature, & proprioception Somatosensory Association Area Integration & interpretation of somatosensory information Shape, texture, relative orientations of body segments, etc. Memory storage for comparison of sensory information Primary Motor Area (precentral gyrus) Voluntary contraction of specific muscles or muscle groups Coding of force and direction of movement Important for generation of skilled and accurate movements Premotor and Supplementary Motor Areas “Memory banks” for learned activities Communicate w/ Primary Motor Area to generate learned, complex, sequential activities Contraction of specific muscles in a specific sequence Writing, walking, etc.
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Functional Areas of the Cerebral Cortex
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