2_Basic_Structures_&_Transmission_of_Neural_Information

2_Basic_Structures_&_Transmission_of_Neural_Information...

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Unformatted text preview: Neuroanatomy & Neurophysiology: Basic Structures & Transmission of Neural Information EXSS 380 Neuromuscular Control & Learning Functions of the Nervous System Sensory Senses changes in the internal and external environment Integrative Analyzes data Stores data Decides which stimul are important Motor Responds to stimuli through muscular contractions or glandular secretion Principle Nervous System Divisions Central Nervous System (CNS) Brain superior to foramen magnum Spinal Cord inferior to foramen magnum Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) Cranial nerves Spinal nerves Divisions of PNS Autonomic Nervous System Involuntary Connections to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands Two subdivisions Motor stimuli may be either excitatory (sympathetic division) or inhibitory (parasympathetic division) Somatic Nervous System Voluntary & reflexive muscle activity Output to skeletal muscle only All motor stimuli are excitatory in nature The Neuron Functional unit of nervous system Soma (nerve cell) Dendrite Input Axon Output via terminals The Dendrite Input to neuron Branched processes emerging from cell body Function: Conducts nerve impulses toward cell body Relays information from external environment Several dendrites per neuron The Axon Long, thin, cylindrical process Joins cell body at axon- hillock Function: Transmit nerve impulses away from cell body to other neurons, muscle fibers, or glands Communicates with other cells via axon terminals Axon Terminals Synaptic end bulb Synaptic vesicle Neurotransmitter Synapse Junction b/w neurons &: Other neurons Effectors muscle or gland Transmission of Neural Information Transmission of Neural Information Neurotransmitters Three major categories Amino acids Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) Typically produces hyperpolarization Neuropeptides Endorphins Natural pain killers Biogenic Amines Acetylcholine (ACh) Key role in skeletal muscle contraction Catecholamines Dopamine involved with production of smooth movement and Parkinson's disease Epinephrine (adrenaline) Serotonin linked with depression & Alzheimers disease Myelination Myelin Sheath Multilayered, segmented lipid covering Increases nerve conduction velocity Formed by Schwann cells Nodes of Ranvier Narrow gaps in myelin sheaths between adjacent Schwann cells Action potential jumps from node to node Functional Classification...
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This note was uploaded on 05/29/2008 for the course EXSS 276 taught by Professor Hacnkey during the Summer '08 term at UNC.

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2_Basic_Structures_&_Transmission_of_Neural_Information...

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