2_Basic_Structures_&_Transmission_of_Neural_Information

2_Basic_Structures_&_Transmission_of_Neural_Information...

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Unformatted text preview: Neuroanatomy & Neurophysiology: Basic Structures & Transmission of Neural Information EXSS 380 – Neuromuscular Control & Learning Functions of the Nervous System • Sensory • Senses changes in the internal and external environment • Integrative • Analyzes data • Stores data • Decides which stimul are important • Motor • Responds to stimuli through muscular contractions or glandular secretion Principle Nervous System Divisions • Central Nervous System (CNS) – Brain – superior to foramen magnum – Spinal Cord – inferior to foramen magnum • Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) – Cranial nerves – Spinal nerves Divisions of PNS • Autonomic Nervous System – Involuntary – Connections to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands – Two subdivisions • Motor stimuli may be either excitatory (sympathetic division) or inhibitory (parasympathetic division) • Somatic Nervous System – Voluntary & reflexive muscle activity – Output to skeletal muscle only – All motor stimuli are excitatory in nature The Neuron • Functional unit of nervous system – Soma (nerve cell) – Dendrite • Input – Axon • Output via terminals The Dendrite • Input to neuron • Branched processes emerging from cell body • Function: – Conducts nerve impulses toward cell body – Relays information from external environment • Several dendrites per neuron The Axon • Long, thin, cylindrical process • Joins cell body at axon- hillock • Function: – Transmit nerve impulses away from cell body to… • other neurons, muscle fibers, or glands • Communicates with other cells via axon terminals Axon Terminals • Synaptic end bulb – Synaptic vesicle – Neurotransmitter • Synapse – Junction b/w neurons &: • Other neurons • Effectors – muscle or gland Transmission of Neural Information Transmission of Neural Information • Neurotransmitters – Three major categories • Amino acids – Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) » Typically produces hyperpolarization • Neuropeptides – Endorphins » Natural “pain killers” • Biogenic Amines – Acetylcholine (ACh) » Key role in skeletal muscle contraction – Catecholamines » Dopamine – involved with production of smooth movement and Parkinson's disease » Epinephrine (adrenaline) » Serotonin – linked with depression & Alzheimer’s disease Myelination • Myelin Sheath – Multilayered, segmented lipid covering – Increases nerve conduction velocity – Formed by Schwann cells • Nodes of Ranvier – Narrow gaps in myelin sheaths between adjacent Schwann cells – Action potential “jumps” from node to node Functional Classification...
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2_Basic_Structures_&_Transmission_of_Neural_Information...

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