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Lecture 8 Cell Structure - Eukaryotic Cells

Lecture 8 Cell Structure - Eukaryotic Cells - Lecture 8...

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Lecture 8 Cell Structure – Eukaryotic Cells A. Nucleus (figs. 4-7, 4-8) - Control center of the cell Contains most of DNA, which has codes for all proteins 1. Nuclear envelope, nucleoplasm, nuclear lamina - Nuclear envelope Two concentric m e m br an es (double m e m bran e) Space betwe en two m e m bran es is called lum en - Nucleoplas m     Inside the nuclear m e m br an e - Nuclear Lamina     Locat ed just b elow nuclear m e m bran e An exa m ple of inter m ediat e fibers of cytoskeleton Made up of a prot ein called lamin (com pose interm ediat e filam ents) Function is support (keeps sh ap e of the nucleus) 2. Nuclear pores (fig. 4-11) Holes in the m e m bran es so things can get in and out: o RNA n e e d to get out 3. DNA –chrom atin Chromoso m es (46; cont ain all the g en es from the charact eristics we h ave, height, we e nzym es, hair color) Chromoso m es that are not condensed Stretched out when cell is dividing 4. Nucleolus Where riboso m es are m a nufactured Not m e m br an e-bound
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Not part of the cytomembrane system B. Internal Membrane System (or the cytomembrane system) - Includes everything except for the mitochondria and chloroplasts (starting from the   nuclear membrane and up to and including the cell membrane) These are exceptions because mitochondria were once bacteria, and chloroplasts wer   once cyanobacteria (became part of our cells, have membranes, reproduce themselv 1. Endoplasmic Reticulum (figs. 4-7, 4-8, 4-12) - A membrane system attached to the inner cell membrane - The space of the ER is connected to the space inside the cell membrane (lumen) - A communicating system - ALL EUKARYOTIC CELLS, NO PROKARYOTIC CELLS (none of these parts) a. Rough ER (RER) - Has dots on it (ribosomes, not membrane-bound) - Shape is considered to be flattened sacs with ribosomes present - The main function is protein synthesis including the membrane proteins - Pancreas has  a lot  of rough ER Where insulin is made (a protein hormone) Where digestive enzymes are made b. Smooth ER (SER) - No ribosomes - Shape is tubular - Functions include:  lipid metabolism  o fatty acids, phospholipids, steroids (cholesterol in the liver), steroid hormones   (testosterone and estrogen; testes and ovaries) Carbohydrate Metabolism o Glycogen (liver)
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Detoxifying Enzymes (why the liver is not good for eating) - Liver cells have a lot of smooth ER, as well as the testes and ovaries 2. Golgi Complex (fig. 4-13) - Aka Golgi Body or Golgi Apparatus - Stacks of membranous sacs - Not directly connected to the ER or anything after that - Each layer may not be connected to other layers - Function: processes the chemicals from the ER (final processing so they are functiona   and can do their jobs) Proteins Lipids Carbohydrates Enzymes
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