Lecture 4 Organic Compounds – Lipids

Lecture 4 Organic Compounds – Lipids -...

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Lecture 4: Organic Compounds – Lipids A. Carbon Compounds - Must have carbon and at least hydrogen Found in living organisms (why they are called organic) - The simplest carbon co mpounds ar e not considered organic (CO, CO 2 , CO 3 - ; carbon monoxide, dioxide, carbonate) - Have two m ain groups of organic co mpounds 1. Monom ers - Called “building blocks” - 4 b asic groups Monosaccharides Amino acids (use about 20 as hu m ans) Fatty acids nucleotides 2. Polym ers - Aka Macromolecules - Take m ono m ers a nd m ake polym ers - Major groups: Proteins (a mino acids) Lipids (fatty acids) Carbohydrat es (monosaccharides) Nucleic acids (nucleotides) B. Lipids 1. Definition - Heterogen eous Don’t h ave the sa m e structure, look different
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- Any organic molecule that is soluble in a nonpolar organic solvent and almost comple   insoluble in water - Not categorized based on structure, but on solubility Examples: ether, chloroform, benzene Usually they do not mix with water (will float or sink) 2. Functions 3. Subgroups - Fatty acids - Triglycerides - Phospholipids - Waxes - Steroids - Vitamins (some) C. Fatty Acids 1. Definition – they are chains of carbon and hydrogen with a carboxylic acid group on o   end - Range from 2-22 carbons long by adding more carbon and hydrogen (depending on h   you add, you may have saturated, unsaturated, or polyunsaturated) - Monomers (building blocks) for most lipids (fig. 3-12) Fatty acids are released when fat is broken down in acid or heat… - CH 3 -COOH All have at least carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
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