Lecture 34 – Gas Exchange (respiration)

Lecture 34 – Gas Exchange (respiration) -...

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Lecture 34 – Gas Exchange (respiration) A. Respiration (CO2 and O2) (3 basic kinds) 1. Cellular respiration: (aerobic respiration) the oxidation of glucose (includes Krebs’s cycle, glycolysis, electron transport system); all animal undergo this aerobic respiration 2. Internal: (tissue level) the exchange of gas between the blood and the tissues and cells 3. External: aka pulmonary; exchange of gas between the lungs and the blood 4. Ventilation – for humans, this is called breathing - actively moving air or water over the respiratory surface 5. Respiratory surface (fig. 45-1) a. Surface – the entire surface of the organism (ex: earthworms, nudibranchs), also a frog b. Trachea – insects and spiders; just tubes, opening in the external skeleton called a spiracle, tubes lead to smaller tubes called tracheoles (these are fluid-filled); this must be fluid–filled because oxygen won’t go into the tissues without water c. Gills – aquatic organisms (fish); HIGHLY vascularized (very tiny capillaries are in them); work by countercurrent circulation (the blood flows one way and the water is flowing the opposite way – this allows maximum extraction of oxygen) d. Lungs – for land organisms 6. Respiratory pigments – most animals have hemoglobin (protein) with iron attached to it Oxygen is poorly soluble in water, so the iron’s job is to bind to the oxygen and carried it through us - Blue-bloods have he mocyanin (found in mollusks and arthropods) and the cyanin binds the oxygen B. Mamm alian Respiratory Syste m 1. Prelarynx portion (fig. 45-6) 1) Nostrils – the opening to the nasal cavities 2) Nasal Cavities – above the hard palate in the mouth (secretes mucous) 3) Nasopharynx – area above the soft palate (secretes mucous) - Function of mucous is to trap anything you’re breathing in, then you swallow it
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This note was uploaded on 05/30/2008 for the course BS 131 taught by Professor Smith during the Spring '08 term at University of the Sciences in Philadelphia.

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Lecture 34 – Gas Exchange (respiration) -...

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