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review_sheet_for_final_first_3_sections-1 - Review Sheet...

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Review Sheet for Final Exam: First 3 portions of the Class What are inductive and deductive reasoning? Why is observation so important in science? What are the steps of the scientific method? What is the null hypothesis? What is a control? Why are they important? When we do science how do we use hypotheses? What is the scientific defn of a theory? An example? What is the structure and function of DNA? You should know the 4 bases, how they pair Where is DNA located? What is a genome? Is all the DNA in the genome genes? What are homologous chromosomes? Do they have to be identical? Defn of loci, allele, dominant, recessive, genotype, phenotype, homozygous, heterozygous What are some examples of how environment can affect phenotype? How do organisms grow? Are daughter cells identical to the parent cell? What is the cell cycle? What are the components? What happens in each component? Where is DNA replicated? unreplicated? duplicated? separated? How many chromosomes do humans have? How many homologous pairs? What are sister chromatids? Are they identical? How does DNA replication happen? You should know that after DNA replication one strand is new and one is original. What do genes do? How do genes become proteins? How do transcription and translation work? How is RNA different from DNA? Where does transcription occur? translation? What are mRNA, tRNA, codons, amino acides, polypeptides? You do NOT need to memorize the genetic code. I will supply this to you, if needed. What happens when there is a mutation in the DNA, mRNA, protein? How are the numbers of chromosomes reduced by half to form gametes? Why is it important to reduce the number of chromosomes by half to form gametes? You should know the process of meiosis Defn of haploid, diploid You should know Mendel’s Laws: heritable and distinct genes, multiple alleles, segregation (independent assortment), one gene from each parent, dominant vs. recessive How does independent assortment increase variation in gametes? and individuals? In what stages of mitosis or meiosis are chromosomes duplicated? not-duplicated? organized in homologous pairs? haploid/diploid?
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What is the source of variation among individuals? What is crossing over? When does it occur? How does it affect variation? Why is sexual reproduction important in increasing variation among individuals? What are the various modes of inheritance? What are examples of autosomal dominant? autosomal recessive? sex-linked conditions/diseases?
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