lecture 10-11 - Calvinist precepts that led to capitalism...

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Max Weber wrote “The Protestant Ethic” and “The spirit of Capitalism” in respons to Karl Marx’s “Dialectical Materialism” For Weber, bureaucratic coordination of activities is a distinctive mark of the modern era. Elements of Bureaucracy: Positions Authority rests with position Incumbents have limited authority Incumbents follow impersonal rules Appointments made by specialized qualification rather than ascription Bureaucracy allows centralization of coercive power. Modern states are successful to the extent they monopolize use of coercive power within their borders Major advantage of bureaucracy is calculability of results Max Weber: Why did capitalism start in England and US? Marx: Capitalism is private ownership Weber: particular religious ideas led to economic systems like capitalism Marx: Religion justifies unfair economic systems: “Religion is the opiate of the masses” Origin of modern industrial capitalism:
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Unformatted text preview: Calvinist precepts that led to capitalism Asceticism: self-denial, minimal consumption of material goods gives glory to god Predestination: a select few are chosen at birth to enter heaven Success: while it is impossible to change ones destiny, success in life is a sign of being chosen by God. Consequences of Calvinist precepts for economic system: Protestants work very hard because worldly success is a sign of salvation Protestants are reluctant to spend the wealth generated by success that many attain through hard work Excess wealth builds up and is used as profit to start new businesses. Capitalism is born. Max Weber: bureaucracy is an iron cage Robert Michaels: Iron Law of Oligarchy Oligarchy: rule of many by the few Iron Law of Oligarchy: as democratic organizations grow in complexity, a small group of rulers emerges....
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