lecture 10-30 - o Alcohol consumption o Most in 1830 o...

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Because test scores are determined in part by expectations that students have for the consequences of a high score, minority and majority test scores cannot accurately be compared Although recent research can be seen to support affirmative action, it does not solve the problem because affirmative action institutionalizes racial differences in academic performance Deviance: behavior that violates a norm Norm: a rule that guides behavior Sanction: penalty for violating or reward for following a norm Normal behavior: in accord with a norm, or common practice Internalized social norms: o Freud: superego (unconscious) o G.H. Mead: Gneralized other (Conscious conception of self) W.J. Rorarbaugh: The Alcoholic Republic
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Unformatted text preview: o Alcohol consumption o Most in 1830 o Biggest drop 1830-1850 o Least 1918-0921 o 2000: 2.8 gallons per adult o Health, religious, safety, technology may be cause of major changes • Labeling theory of Deviance: behavior itself is not deviant. Social reaction to behavior makes it deviant • Human beings usually behave about the way their group expects them to • Secondary Deviance: social reactions to a person labeled as deviant increase the likelihood of that person’s future deviant behavior. • Robert Merton: Structural functionalist theory of social structure and Anomie, now often called Strain Theory • Anomie: alienation that comes from uncertainty or social unrest...
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