biology exam 2

biology exam 2 - Biological Inguiry II Review Topics for...

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Review Topics for Exam II Exam II: Thursday February 28 th 9:25-10:40am in 102 Bayer Chapters 26 (Box 26.1 only) and Chapter section 33.6 Hominid Evolution 1. Name the four groups of hominid fossils and describe how they differ. -Gracile Australopithecines- Small Delicate Skulls -Robust Australopithecines- Larger skull, more molars -Early Homo- flatter narrow faces and larger braincases -Recent Homo- Cro-Magnon, Neanderthals, and modern Humans 2. Did members of different groups of hominids live at the same time? -Yes, there is overlap in each group. 3. Why is it incorrect to say that modern humans evolved from chimps? -Because we evolved separately from chimps, even though we share a common ancestor 4. What was the Out of Africa hypothesis? Provide evidence to support it. -Homo Sapiens originated in Africa, migrated out, and did not interbreed with H. Neanderthals in Europe 5. What evidence is there to suggest that Homo sapiens did not interbreed with Neanderthals? - the mutations in the mtDNA in any 2 people are 8 base pairs. Between the Neanderthals and humans it is 25 base pairs, and they are not similar mutations 6. What defines humans? -Bipedal posture, large brain, slow rate of sexual maturation, prolonged parental care, huge capacity for learning. 7. What is a molecular clock? Outline the steps needed to use a molecular clock. -The use of accumulation of neutral mutations to determine the time from the last common ancestor. Find fossil of common ancestor, count number of neutral base pair changes since divergence, apply fossil age to calibrate, use clock to find time since divergence 8. How can a molecular clock determine the age of the last common ancestor to living humans? -because the rate of base pair change is relatively constant, the amount of base pair change between species can be used to calculate the time since the last common ancestor Chapter 52 Population Ecology 1. What is a population and how does it differ from a species? -A population is all of the members of a species living in the same area at the same time -A species is a monophyletic group with similar behavior, physiology, anatomy 2. How does population ecology differ from ecosystem ecology? -Population is the study of the population’s interaction with their environment -Ecosystem is the study of the entire ecosystem, not just one population 3. List 4 factors that affect a population’s growth rate. -fecundity, survivorship, density independent factors, density dependent factors 4. How is the per capita rate of growth (r) calculated? - = (#birth-#death)/pop size 5. What can be said about a population with a positive and high r value? -high offspring per female per year 6. What can be said about a population where r = 0? -Is neither growing nor shrinking
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This note was uploaded on 05/30/2008 for the course BIOL 113 taught by Professor Moore during the Spring '07 term at Duquesne.

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biology exam 2 - Biological Inguiry II Review Topics for...

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