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biology Exam I - Biological Inquiry II Review Topics for...

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Biological Inquiry II Review Topics for Exam Chapter 1: 1. What are the four step of the scientific method? Ask a question Generate hypotheses Design Experiment Accept or Reject hypothesis 2. How does a scientific theory differ from the every day use of the word theory? A scientific theory is an explanation for a very general class of phenomena or observations that is consistently supported by numerous experiments using the scientific method. 3. Name three important elements of experimental design. Controlled laboratory environment Negative control Replicate 4. Is anything ever proven in science? Nothing can ever be proven to be a fact; everything is a well-proven theory. 5. What is the Cell theory? The Cell Theory states that all cells are produced from the division and growth of other living cells. 6. What was the competing hypothesis of cell-from-cells hypothesis? Spontaneous generation, all cells arise spontaneously from non-living material. 7. Define: Heritable trait, Adaptation, fitness. Heritable trait- characteristics that can be passed on to offspring. Adaptation- a trait that increases the fitness of an individual in a particular environment. Fitness- the ability of an individual to produce surviving fertile offspring. 8. How does artificial selection differ from natural selection? Artificial selection is deliberate manipulations by humans by allowing only the desirable individuals to reproduce. Natural selection occurs when heritable variation in certain traits leads to an improved success in reproduction. Chapter 23: 1. Who is the father of modern Taxonomy? Carolus Linneaus 2. How did William Paley explain adaptations? Species are static and designed by God therefore they don’t adapt or change. 1
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3. How are William Paley’s ideas presented today? Many people think the Bible is a scientific document. 4. What beliefs were shared by Jean Lamark and Erasmus Darwin? Both believed in evolution. 5. What is the mechanism of evolution proposed by Lamark? Use & Disuse- traits most used by organisms get bigger and stronger, those not used are discarded. 6. How did Thomas Malthus and Charles Lyell influence Charles Darwin? Mortality is brutal in the first stages of life; more offspring than needed are produced because few survive. The Earth is very old. 7. What is uniformitarianism? The laws of the universe are constant over time and throughout space. 8. How did the voyage of the H.M.S. Beagle influence Charles Darwin? He saw variations of the same organisms in all of the places that he traveled to. 9. What/Who prompted Charles Darwin to publish “The Origin of Species”? Wallace pushes Darwin to publish The Origin of Species. 10. List Darwin’s 4 basic observations that supported the theory of natural selection. There is variation in traits among individuals of a population.
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