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Unformatted text preview: Chemistry 132, Winter 2008 Solutions to Homework No. 5 Problem 1. Given n possible values x i , i = 1 ··· n , of a discrete random variable X , and given a function f ( X ) of the variable X , the average value of f ( X ) is (Levine eq. 15.40) h f ( X ) i = n X i =1 p i f ( x i ) , p i = N i N , N = n X i =1 N i , where p i is the probability that X = x i , N i is the number of observations (or samples) for which X = x i , and N is the total number of observations. In this problem, an observa tion consists of recording the speed and direction of a car passing below the bridge. The random variable is either the speed or the velocity. The velocity is just the speed with a sign that indicates whether the car was traveling due east (positive) or west (negative). Each part of this problem can be solved by specializing the above formula to a particular random variable and a particular function. (a) Here the variable is the velocity component v x along the xaxis, which is taken to point from west to east, and the function to be averaged is f ( X ) = X , h v x i = 1 N m X i =1 N i v x,i . (b) Here the variable is the speed v , which is the magnitude of v x , and the function to be averaged is again f ( X ) = X , h v i = 1 N m X i =1 N i v i . (c) Here the variable is again the speed v but the function to be averaged is f ( X ) = X 2 . Also, the square root of the average is being asked (Levine eq. 15.21) h v 2 i = 1 N m X i =1 N i v 2 i , v rms = h v 2 i 1 / 2 . The actual calculations using the above formulas and the given data can be done in an Excel spreadsheet, as shown in Figure 1. The results are h v x i = 2 . 82 km / h , h v i = 86 . 08 km / h , v rms = 86 . 20 km / h . Figure 1: Excel spreadsheet for problem 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 A B C D E F G H i v i / (km/h) dir. n i v x,i / (km/h) n i ×v x,i / (km/h) n i ×v i / (km/h) n i ×v i 2 / (km/h) 2 1 80 E 40 80 3200 3200 256000 2 85 E 62 85 5270 5270 447950 3 90 E 53 90 4770 4770 429300 4 95 E 12 95 1140 1140 108300 5 100 E 2 100 200 200 20000 6 80 W 38803040 3040 243200 7 85 W 59855015 5015 426275 8 90 W 60905400 5400 486000 9 100 W 2100200 200 20000 N 328 (a) 〈 v x 〉 / (km/h) 2.820122 (b) 〈 v 〉 / (km/h) 86.08232 (c) 〈 v 2 〉 ½ / (km/h) 86.19718 cell formula F2 =D2*E2 G2 =D2*B2 H2 =D2*B2^2 F12 =SUM(D2:D10) F13 =SUM(F2:F10)/F12 F14 =SUM(G2:G10)/F12 F15 =SQRT(SUM(H2:H10)/F12) Problem 4....
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This note was uploaded on 05/22/2008 for the course CHEM 132 taught by Professor Lindenberg during the Winter '08 term at UCSD.
 Winter '08
 Lindenberg
 Chemistry

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