accumulation_of_them_all - December 5 2007 EXAM REVIEWS...

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December 5, 2007 EXAM REVIEWS Tuesday 3 – 4:30 Wednesday 2 – 3:30 @ ZHS 159 Thursday 4 – 5:30 Composition of Earth and Behavior of it Oxygen and Silicon are the most abundant elements in the Earth’s crust Minerals - Naturally occurring chemical compounds - Crystalline internal structure - Definite or fairly definite composition - Definite or fairly definite physical properties [e.g. color, cleavage, streak, luster, crystal appearance] - Minerals combine to form rocks - Rocks are aggregates of Minerals Rocks - Rocks are aggregates of minerals (and sometimes aggregates of rocks - Two major rock textures o Crystalline and clastic (fragmental, detrital) - Where igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks form… The Rock Cycle - Lets start with weathering, shall we? Then eroded, the sediment is transported; it is then deposited as sediment. Lithification, sedimentary rocks are formed. - It is magma at depth, lava at the surface Volcano Varieties - Shield volcano (basalt) - Calderas - Stratovolcano (andesite) - Plug dome (rhyolite) - Cinder cone (basalt fragments) - If the magma is thick, the gases build up within that magma, and they are in the position that slight changes in pressure can blow the volcano apart! BAM! - What is not a factor in the explosion of volcanoes? The amount of silica, the amount of iron and magnesium, and the amount of dissolved gases are the CRITICAL factors. Rocks - Sediment is also transported in solution (dissolved) as ions Stratigraphic Fundamentals
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- Layers of sedimentary rocks are referred toa s beds or strata. Geologists refer to “bedding” of sedimentary rocks - Nicholas Steno Unconformity is break in a Stratigraphic sequence. Sediments are deposited, they become liquefied (?) and we then wind up with a break in geologic layers Non-conformity is the surface of erosion that separates older crystalline rocks from overlying sedimentary rocks Metamorphic rocks represent pre-existing rocks. did u know that recrystallization occurs in two settings? in regional metamorpic settings and in contact metamorphism, where we're just talking about putting magma into the crust Mt. St. Helens - The volcano was being intruded at depths of very thick viscous magma 1. Half of questions cover first 10 weeks. Half from last 5 weeks 2. Start soon studying pdf lectures; doin’t study all in a short time before the exam 3. focus on topics covered by multiple “slides”; pay special attention to text slides 4. attend next week’s review sessions and come prepared with questions 5. if you don’t understand the wording of an exam question as one of us for clarification November 12, 2007 PLANET EARTH GLACIERS AND GLACIATION Glaciers are accumulations of ice on land that are thick enough that their deeper levels become ductile under the pressure of the overlying ice. The lower lever thus flatten and flow. A glacier is a mass of moving ice. - The weight can become so heavy, that underneath the glacier there can be Recrystallization. Glacier ice is a particularly special rock.
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