I. FOUNDATIONS A. Type of Questions 1.Descriptive - when a study is designed primarily to describe what is going on or what exists 2.Relational- study is designed to look at the relationships between 2 or more variables 3.Casual- Study designed to determine whether one or more variables causes or affects one or more outcome variables B. Types of Relationships 1. Nature of Relationships a. Correlational - two things perform in a synchronised manner 1. Ex: good in math, good in music 2. Just because correlated DOES NOT mean one causes the other a. ex: positive correlation with # of roads built in Europe and babies born in the US <—NOT CASUAL b. Casual - two events exists if the occurrence of the first causes the other c. Third Variable Problem - may be a third variable causing a correlation between two separate non casual variables 1. Ex: world economy, good economy allows for new roads and more children to be born 2. # of hours using computer to study and GPA correlation BUT third variable is socioeconomic status (richer have better resources to use tech) 2. Patterns of Relationships a. No relationship b. Positive - high values associated with high values, low values associated with low values c. Negative (inverse) - high values associated with low values of the other C. Hypotheses 1. Not all studies have hypotheses (exploratory) 2. Two general hypothesis
a. one that describes your prediction (your prediction) the alternative hypothesis H1 b. one that describes all the other possible outcomes with respect to the hypothesised relationship null hypothesis H0 3. one-tailed hypothesis a. If hypothesis has an equal sign in it, this is a two-tailed test. If it has > or < it is a one-tailed test 4. Prediction does not specify a direction, we say you have a two-tailed hypothesis . 5. If your prediction was correct, then you would (usually) reject the null hypothesis 6. d D. Types of Data 1. Qualitative- words, text, photos, sounds, video 2. Quantitative - numerical form E. Two Research Fallacies 1. Fallacy- error in reasoning based on mistaken assumptions 2. Ecological- make conclusions about individuals based only on analyses of a group of data a. Ex: measuring math scores in classroom and found they have highest score in district 1. Assume: meeting a student from the classroom that they would be a math genius 2. Reality: Could be the lowest scorer in that class 3. Exception - when you reach a group conclusion on the basis of exceptional cases a. Ex: Core of a lot of sexism and racism b. “Women are terrible drivers” 4. Fallacies point to traps that exist in both research and reasoning F. Structure of Research 1. “Hourglass notion”
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