Topic 3: Micronutrients – Minerals Lesson 1: Minerals I High dietary fiber intake can interfere with the absorption of zinc (Zn) Selenium is the only mineral that functions as an antioxidant Vitamins are also micronutrients, but now we’ll focus on minerals In the ocean there are soluble minerals dissolved in it (in 60mL sample, 3.5% is salt minerals – what is measured to be salt material in most oceans of the world) Galapagos islands – iguanas, blue footed boobies o 1 mole of water (18g – 6*10 23 molecules of water) had 3.8% salt minerals – very little fresh water flowing out of the islands, and warmer all year long so higher for these reasons In the Dead Sea, it is a saturated salt solution with 32% salt minerals (easy to float - buoyed up by salt concentration) Elements involved in salts (ions) = sodium, potassium, magnesium, chlorine or chloride ion o Ions have outer electrons that can be easily removed and combine with negatively charged species Ca++ HCO3- (bicarbonate) Mg++ Cl- (chloride) Na+ SO4-- (sulfate) Calcium + sulphate (have the same charge ++/--) Gypsum Magnesium + sulphate = Epsom salts Calcium + 2 bicarbonates calcium carbonate ( limestone ) + CO2 +H20 Above: Ca(HCO 3 ) 2 CaCO 3 + CO 2 + H 2 O Sodium (Na+) + chloride (Cl-) = Table salt o Dolomite= a mixture of calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate (CaCO3 / MgCO3) co-crystalizes with other crystals (ex: Cinnabar HgS – Mercury Sulfide) o Dolomite pills are sold, and have magnesium and calcium carbonate mixture but problem with cinnabar as a co-crystalizing crystal is that it can be toxic (ex: mercury) Has 2.81mg of iron in supplement (such a small amount) Dolomite can have trace elements of arsenic, aluminum or lead – if in small trace quantities, doesn’t necessarily have to show up most of calcium and magnesium in these anyway you can get from diet o Cinnabar= magnesium sulphide (previously used as vermillion paint) Vertical columns of periodic table represent elements with similar properties o F, Cl, Br, I, At can all easily gain an electron Across periodic table = changing element by atomic number Salts (ions) are charged species
o Nucleus is composed of protons o # of protons determines the element o equivalent # of electrons balance out the charges of protons in the nucleus o Na has 11 e-, when we talk about sodium in our diet we DO NOT talk about elemental sodium that has lost an electron (Na + 2H20 NaOH + H2) produces elemental hydrogen which is immediately combustible, and can cause fire Ionic bonding: connections that take place between elements in periodic table o Br2 (l) + 2K (s) 2KBr (BANG!!) K+Br- (a crystalline solid salt with a high melting point – would also be present in sea salt) o Potassium can combine with elemental bromine to make a salt o We take some potassium, which is stored under a hydrocarbon take piece of potassium to put in bromine – as it lowers towards the beaker with a low amount of bromine, there is a quick and violent reaction, which leaves you with K+Br- (potassium bromide)
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- Spring '11
- Sodium, Sodium chloride