Partial Study Guide for Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Final 2015 (1st eight lectures after 2nd midterm)1. SpeciationWhat is the difference between allopatric and sympatric speciation? What is the difference between dispersal and vicariance? What are the different types of vicariant barriers that lead to speciation? Why are Hawaiian flies a good example of speciation by dispersal? How can sympatric speciation arise? How can autotetraploidy and allotetraploidy lead to speciation? What are reproductive isolating mechanisms and how do they affect fitness of females? What are hybrid zones and how is a hybrid zone illustrated by the toad and bird examples? Can humans impact speciation in nature?2. Coevolution and mutualismWhat are the positive, negative, and neutral types of ecological relationships that can occur between species? What is cospeciation and how is it illustrated? What is mimicry and how is it illustrated? What adaptations occur in the ant-acacia mutualism? How do the interacting species benefit in pollination and seed dispersal mutualisms?