APWch21 - The Ottoman Empire POLITICAL-political...

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The Ottoman EmpirePOLITICAL-political structures-forms of government-empires-nationalism, nations-revolts, revolutionsRuler - absolute monarch - Sultan played factions in society v. each other to maintain powerEffective administration for annexed peoplesSunni Islam Day to day administration:Headed by grand Vizier (wazir) Head of imperial admin.Often held more power than sultan Sultans:Active role in politics Lead army into battleDetached from subjects - increased size and wealth - palaces and luxury Influenced by Byzantium, Persia, Arabia Many wives and concubinesSuccession: vague and contestedMany able successors - civil strifeWarfare among sons of SultanDefeated claimants flee to Christian/Muslim kingdoms - rally military campaigns v. new rulers Vizier: Ottoman equiv of Abbasid wazir; head of Ottoman bureaucracy Mehmed II - The ConquerorConquer Constantinople - restore its beauty - influenced later sultans Focused on expansion Suleyman the MagnificentSuleymaniye - mosqueSultans build upon architecture/projects throughout city history Janissaries: Ottoman infantry divisions that dominated Ottoman armies; translated military service into political influence, particularly after 15th centuryDecline:Too large to be maintainedVery expansive bc of focus on military and conquestOversized bureaucracy and armyRampant corruption among officials Central gov lacks control of local regionsLocal officials demand taxes/services from laborersPersonal revenueRebellionsFuture rulers locked awayLeads to successors less able to rule
Addicted to drink, drugs and pleasuresPawns in power struggles of viziersECONOMIC-agricultural, pastoral production-economic systems-labor systems-industrializationM-capitalism, socialismEconomic goals= warfare + expansion → importance warrior aristocracyAs Emp. expanded, increase size + wealth -- ConstantinopleMehmed II: new mosques + palaces, aqueducts (increase agricultural productivity), markets reopened (helped trade)Sci, tech + commercial transformations in Europe (Ottomans ignore) → fall behind in trade and warfareDidn't think what happened in Europe was important

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