● History ○ New Zealand was first occupied by the indigenous Maori people. In 1769, Captain James Cook arrived and encountered violence with the indigenous but was able to befriend some and start to map out the land ○ In 1840, British representative, William Hobson was able to convince the Maori to sign the Treaty of Waitangi which essentially established rule of the British crown ○ Like the Native Americans, Maori rights were not seen through and many conflicts took place eventually pushing out the Maoris and allowing in more settlers taking their land ○ New Zealand involved from a colony to a dominion in 1907 by 1946 the citizens were deemed New Zealand citizens and gained full legal independence when Parliament passed the Constitution Act 1986 ● Demographics ○ Country holds around 4.55 million people with a population growth rate of 1.89% and 86% of the population can be found in urban areas with a growing rate of 1.93% ○ Demographics show that European is the largest ethnic population with 71.2%, followed by Maori with 14.1%, Asian 11.3%, Pacific peoples 7.6% ○ There is a high life expectancy average of 81.2 years with females at 83.3 years and makes at 79.1 years ○ By the early 2020s, people aged 65 and over are projected to outnumber children ● Summary: A newly independent entity from Britain, growing urban areas but overall slow growth rate, with an increasing elderly population ● Political ○ Constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of government ○ Mixed Member Proportional (MMP) program makes it unlikely for one party to rule a majority of seats in the House ○ John Key current head of government as Prime Minister since 2008 ○ The parliament makes new laws, checks the executive; The Ministers of Crown runs the country; Judiciary judges and interprets the law ● Legal ○ Law derives from British common law passed before 1947; follows the precedents of Brit law ○ 2015 Passed Organised Crime and Anti-corruption Legislation Bill to fight corruption (Kochan) ○ 2009 Implemented Territorial Tax system Pomerleau ○ second most internationally competitive tax of all OECD countries Pomerleau ■ Cut individual income tax rate 38 percent to 33 percent; greater reliance on the goods and services tax; cut corporate tax rate to 28 from 30 percent Pomerleau
■ no inheritance tax, no general capital gains tax, and nonpayroll taxes Pomerleau ● Summary: British crown presence politically & legally, internationally competitive tax rates, strong corruption measures ● Public Transport ○ Taxis cost $3 NZD/km for inner-city travel ("New Zealand Public Transpor) ○ Wellington most use of public transport with 30%, Auckland at 18%, and Christchurch at 9% (Wellington Facts & Figures) ○ 34% of people in New Zealand have used local public transport in the last year.
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