OB_midterm_notes - FOUNDATIONS OF LEADERSHIP Knowledge of...

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FOUNDATIONS OF LEADERSHIP Knowledge of organizational behavior : 3 layers Individual – what motivates members Group – how teams function, how to lead teams Organizational level – how to structure the firm Basic behavioral skills – Communicate + negotiate effectively, exercise power wisely. Change of work over time Apprentice journeyman master Adam Smith – many people work together to make a product (working on specific part) vs. working by yourself on the whole thing – together = more efficient Specialization – one person is responsible for putting on a steering wheel – easy to replace worker. Unity of command – one boss, so less confusion for employee Span of control – how many subordinates. (Magic # of subordinates – 5-7) Hawthorne : experiment working on communication devices. Changing factors of production to see if productivity changes. Light dimming – productivity increases – knew being watched – felt like someone is paying attention to them (productivity has to do with people, not machines) (30’s) Formal group – appointed by manager Informal group – like to work together (lunch) How groups work together : Bureaucracy – inefficient, government, DMV Max Weber – organization where people are treated fairly. Written rules for workers to abide by – no misunderstandings + consistent. Employees point of view – don’t want supervisor to treat them differently from day to day. Management becomes a profession legitimizing commerce (40’s) Leadership studies : task leaders & social leaders combined Different people have different expectations Inventing new stuff – eg. 15% of time to think about new innovations. Task leaders are not good for making new things pressure. Bounded authority – limit to how much people can process. In a systems concept you have to look at the big picture (not just a segment) Bank tellers quit b/c: boring job, hard to promote, not a lot of benefits (now fewer tellers b/c ATM & online checking) Contingency – It all depends (eg. individual differences, technology, competitive environment & national culture) Need to bring back communication and leadership – too quantitative.
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Internationalize: global world – need to understand hwo things are different and learn from others. SENSE MAKER Biographical features : Age – young people have more avoidable absences – older people have more unavoidable. Gender – performance not different between men and women b/c we’re in the information era and we don’t depend on physical work anymore. Females have more absences because they usually have to take care of an emergency at the house and with the children. Tenure – how long will you stay on the job. (good indication – how long at last job?) if have a family, more likely to stay at one place (responsibilities) Ability: Intellectual ability : thinking, reasoning and problem solving. IQ tests, standardized tests.
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