Midterm_Notes - CHAPTER 2 Age Older employees are resistant...

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CHAPTER 2 Age – Older employees are resistant to new technologies and orgs are seeking individuals adaptable to change. Age does not negatively effect productivity. Older people have more involuntary absenteeism and less voluntary absenteeism. Gender – Working mothers are more likely to prefer part time work, flexible schedules, and telecommuting. Women have higher rates of absenteeism. Tenure – A good predictor of employee productivity. Seniority is negatively related to absenteeism. The longer a person has a job the less likely they are to quit. Marital Status – Married couples have lower rates of turnover. Fewer absences. Are more satisfied w/ their jobs. Ability – An individual’s capacity to perform the various tasks of a job. Intellectual Abilities – Abilities needed to perform mental activities – for thinking, reasoning, and problem solving. The major concern for employers who use intelligence tests is that they may have a negative impact on racial and ethnic groups. Multiple Intelligence – A theory gaining significant support that intelligence can be better understood by breaking it into four subparts: 1. Cognitive – Traditional intelligence. (tests) 2. Social – Person’s ability to relate effectively to others. 3. Emotional – Ability to identify, understand, and manage emotions. 4. Cultural – Awareness of cross cultural differences and the ability to function successfully in cross cultural situations. Physical Abilities – Gain importance to doing less skilled and more standardized jobs. Learning – Any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience. Learning involves change. Classical Conditioning – Pavlov’s Dogs. The meat was an unconditioned stimulus. The salivation was an unconditioned response. The bell was the conditioned stimulus. The behavior of the dog was the conditioned response. (e.g. Xmas carols often bring back pleasant memories of childhood) Operant Conditioning – Argues that behavior is a function of its consequences. People learn to behave to get something they want and avoid something they don’t want. Creating pleasing consequences following a specific form of behavior will increase the frequency of that behavior.
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Social Learning Theory – Much of what we learn comes from watching models. Four processes determine the influence of a model: 1. Attentional processes – We tend to be most influenced by models that are attractive, repeatedly available, important to us, or similar to us. 2. Retention processes – How well the individual remembers the model. 3. Motor reproduction processes – How well watching the model is converted to doing what the model does. 4. Reinforcement processes – Individuals will be motivated to exhibit the modeled behavior if positive incentives are provided.
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