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Sociology 2Z03Lecture 1: April 30th2012Introduction to Sociological ResearchTwo types of RealityA) Agreement Reality- Seeing things as real because you have been told that they are real and everyone seems to agree that they are real- Example: Cold in Antarctica; heard that it is cold so you think this. Don’t know if its cold or not, but because weve heard that its cold my elementary school or someone.- Most of and individuals knowledge of the world comes through agreement; told this or taught this . Its scome from being told certain things and everyone accepting that this is real.B) Experiential Reality- Seeing things as real because you have directly experienced them as real. -Example: Cold in Canada during the winter; you have direct experience with that; you have direct knowledge. Because we have direct experience with that, we know that. - Relatively little of an individual’s knowledge of the world comes through experience. Because most of our knowledge comes from agreement. We don’t directly experience most of what we know.Ordinary InquiryA) What is Ordinary Inquiry?- Associated with agreement realityinvolves obtaining throughtraditionor authorityknowledge that is generally agreed upon within society. B) Two Bases for Ordinary Inquiry? – tradtion and authority 1) Tradition - Knowledge that is passed on in society through culture- example would be religion. These passed down beliefs will tell that culture how the world works. - Advantage=if we accept traditional beliefs than we don’t have to the trouble in developing our own understanding of the world. Thus, people don’t have to develop their own understanding of the world ; it’s given to us - Disadvantage = traditional beliefs discourage people from finding new ways of looking at the world. If we remain confined, than we cant find new interesting ways to understanding the world. We are trapped, we cannot push beyond them.2) Authority- Knowledge passed on in society through experts- Example: Educators, they are experts who pass knowledge to other in society. - Advantage = experts have a great deal of knowledge; people can benefit/ learn a lot from the knowledge that is passed on from those experts.- Disadvantage = experts can be wrong; can make mistakes; knowledge they provide isn’t perfect. Personal InquiryA) What is personal Inquiry?- Associated with experiential reality- involves obtaining knowledge through direct personal experience of the world
- Advantage= it allows us to develop our own understanding of the world beyond what is given to us by tradition or by authority . Allows us to go beyond the knowledge that is given to us by tradition or authority.- Disadvantage= personal inquiry is often subject to many errorsB) Some errors in Personal Inquiry (4) 1) Inaccurate Observation- Our observation is often not conscious;we observe all the time but not in a conscious way and as a result we may inaccurately view events; or recall events. Thus, because we are not conscious we make mistakes.