Cai_Chapter 6 - FIGURE 6-3 Reaction coordinate diagram...

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FIGURE 6-3 Reaction coordinate diagram comparing enzyme- catalyzed and uncatalyzed reactions. In the reaction S → P, the ES and EP intermediates occupy minima in the energy progress curve of the enzyme-catalyzed reaction. The terms Δ G uncat and Δ G cat correspond to the activation energy for the uncatalyzed reaction and the overall activation energy for the catalyzed reaction, respectively. The activation energy is lower when the enzyme catalyzes the reaction.
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FIGURE 6-8 (part 1) How a catalyst circumvents unfavorable charge development during cleavage of an amide. The hydrolysis of an amide bond, shown here, is the same reaction as that catalyzed by chymotrypsin and other proteases. Charge development is unfavorable and can be circumvented by donation of a proton by H 3 O + (specific acid catalysis) or HA (general acid catalysis), where HA represents any acid. Similarly, charge can be neutralized by proton abstraction by OH (specific base catalysis) or B: (general base catalysis), where B: represents any base.
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FIGURE 6-8 (part 2) How a catalyst circumvents unfavorable charge development during cleavage of an amide. The hydrolysis of an amide bond, shown here, is the same reaction as that catalyzed by chymotrypsin and other proteases. Charge development is unfavorable and can be circumvented by donation of a proton by H 3 O + (specific acid catalysis) or HA (general acid catalysis), where HA represents any acid. Similarly, charge can be neutralized by proton abstraction by OH (specific base catalysis) or B: (general base catalysis), where B: represents any base.
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FIGURE 6-8 (part 3) How a catalyst circumvents unfavorable charge development during cleavage of an amide. The hydrolysis of an amide bond, shown here, is the same reaction as that catalyzed by chymotrypsin and other proteases. Charge development is unfavorable and can be circumvented by donation of a proton by H 3 O + (specific acid catalysis) or HA (general acid catalysis), where HA represents any acid. Similarly, charge can be neutralized by proton abstraction by OH (specific base catalysis) or B: (general base catalysis), where B: represents any base.
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FIGURE 6-9 Amino acids in general acid-base catalysis. Many organic reactions are promoted by proton donors (general acids) or proton acceptors (general bases). The active sites of some enzymes contain amino acid functional groups, such as those shown here, that can participate in the catalytic process as proton donors or proton acceptors.
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FIGURE 6-13 Common mechanisms for enzyme-catalyzed bisubstrate reactions.
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