Cai_Chapter 10 - Chapter 10 Lipids Chapter 10 Problems 2 9...

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Chapter 10 Lipids Chapter 10: Problems 2, 9, 11, 12, 18, and 22. 1  
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CHAPTER 10 Lipids Biological roles of lipids Structure and properties of storage lipids Structure and properties of membrane lipids Structure and properties of signaling lipids Key topics : 2
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Lipids: Structurally Diverse Class Low solubility in water Good solubility in nonpolar solvents 3
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Biological Functions of Lipids Storage of energy- Fats and Oils Reduced compounds: lots of available energy Hydrophobic nature: good packing Insulation from environment Low thermal conductivity High heat capacity (can “absorb” heat) Mechanical protection (can absorb shocks) Water repellant Hydrophobic nature: keeps surface of the organism dry Prevents excessive wetting (birds) Prevents loss of water via evaporation Buoyancy control and acoustics in marine mammals Increased density while diving deep helps sinking (just a hypothesis) Spermaceti organ may focus sound energy: sound stun gun? 4
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Biological Functions of Lipids Membrane Structure Main structure of cell membranes Cofactors for enzymes Vitamin K: blood clot formation Coenzyme Q: ATP synthesis in mitochondria Signaling molecules Paracrine hormones (act locally) Steroid hormones (act body-wide) Growth factors Vitamins A and D (hormone precursors) Pigments Color of tomatoes, carrots, pumpkins, some birds Antioxidants Vitamin E 5
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Storage Lipids are Derivatives of Fatty Acids They are Neutral Carboxylic acids with hydrocarbon chains containing from 4 to 36 carbons Almost all natural fatty acids have an even number of carbons Most natural fatty acids are unbranched Saturated: no double bonds between carbons in the chain Monounsaturated : one double bond between carbons in the alkyl chain Polyunsaturated : more than one double bond in the alkyl chain 6
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Polyunsaturated: more than one double bond in the alkyl chain Bonds are never conjugated, contain methylene group/groups in between Most are in cis configuration 7
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(a) Standard nomenclature assigns the number 1 to the carboxyl carbon (C-1), and α to the carbon next to it. The position of any double bond(s) is indicated by Δ followed by a superscript number indicating the lower-numbered carbon in the double bond. (b) For polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), an alternative convention numbers the carbons in the opposite direction, assigning the number 1 to the methyl carbon at the other end of the chain; this carbon is also designated ω (omega; the last letter in the Greek alphabet). The positions of the double bonds are indicated relative to the ω carbon. 8
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Fatty Acid Nomenclature Arachidonic Acid 20:4 (all cis 5,8,11,14 ) number of carbon atoms number of double bonds double bond positions
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According to table 10-1, page 344: cis-,cis-,cis-, cis-,cis-5,8,11,14,17- Eicosapentaenoic Acid 10
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Prefixes that represent the numbers 1 to 10: One is "meth," two is "eth," three is "prop" four
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