Prelim Study Guide - Lecture Summary - Copy

Prelim Study Guide - Lecture Summary - Copy - I Materials A...

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I. 1 Materials A. Metals - Shiny, electrical conductors (stiff and strong) -No natural metals used in body 1. Pure Metals (almost) a. Titanium (with O) b. Platinum (with Ir) 2. Alloys - Mixtures of metals that can contain small amounts of non-metals a. Stainless Steel (Fe + Cr) b. Titanium (with 6% Al and 4% V) c. Cobalt-Chrome (Co+Cr, Mo) 3. Intermetallics a. Amalgam (Ag, Hg, Sn) b. Nitinol (NiTi) -Used for knees, hips, dental, stents, and Pt for pacemakers B. Polymers - Large molecules with repeating sub-units, usually organic (C-based) and in the form of a large (sometimes branched) chain. 1. Thermoplastic - “Plastic” a. Chains are separated. b. Material will soften and flow upon heating but resolidifies upon cooling. c. Ex: Polyethylene, Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), Polyester 2. Thermoset - “Glue” a. Chains are linked into 3D network-huge molecule. b. Cannot be melted. c. Ex: Cyanoacrylate (super glue), dental resins 3. Elastomer - “Rubber” a. Chains are loosely linked. b. Doesn’t melt or dissolve. c. Soft and strechable. d. May swell in solvent. e. Ex: Polyurethane, silicone 4. Natural Polymers a. Proteins - Bioactive (enzymes) and Structural (collagen, keratin, elastin) b. Starch, Cellulose, Polysaccharides (DNA, RNA) C. Ceramics and Glasses 1. Ceramics - Crystalline material including all oxides and many other compounds like nitrides and carbides. a. Ex: Porcelain, cement, quartz, silicon carbide, boron nitride, and carbon. b. Alumina (Al203) - Inert hard material c. Zirconia (ZrO2) - Less brittle with 5-10% yttria d. Hydroxyapatite (HAP) - Natural ceramic used by the body in teeth and bones. (1) Used for bioceramic coatings of metal implants. 2. Glasses - Any disordered material.
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a. Calcium Phosphate - Bone regrowth b. Glassy Carbon - Heart valves II. Biological Concepts A. Proteins - Large (50 unit) molecules with linear chains composed of a sequence of amino acids with amide (peptide) links.
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