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# Slides4_5_color - Lecture 4/5 Shortest Path Problems...

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1 Lecture 4/5 Shortest Path Problems Example Following your suggestions (based on MST), the executive board of your company built the connecting wires between the cities. However, they chose to include additional power lines (to have a reliable network). Now they approach you again hoping to get an answer for a somewhat different problem: A power plant has been built in Albany, and the produced power should be sent to Trenton. But there are different ways to achieve this in the constructed network. The specific question is: What is the shortest path in the network from Albany to Trenton?

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2 Example 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 3 3 2 3 4 2 2 Albany Trenton (see Winston, Example 1, page 414) Given a graph with edge weights c ij 0. Find a shortest path from node 1 to node 6. Solution: Dijkstra’s algorithm Idea: Instead of computing the shortest path from node 1 to 6, we compute all shortest paths from node 1 to node i (i=2,. .,6).
3 Dijkstra’s algorithm (1) 1. (Initialization): Label all nodes incident to node 1 with a temporary label equal to their distance to 1. Node 1 gets a permanent label 0. All other nodes get the temporary label . Choose the least label (say for node i) and make the label permanent. 2. For each node j connected to i with no permanent label do the following: Replace the label of j by: min{label(j), label(i)+c ij } 3. Make the label of the node with the least temporary label permanent. Call this node (internally) i, and go to step 2. Dijkstra’s algorithm: Example 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 3 3 2 3 4 2 2 3 4 0 Init:

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4 Dijkstra’s algorithm: Example 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 3 3 2 3 4 2 2 3 4 6 0 Step 1: Dijkstra’s algorithm: Example 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 3 3 2 3 4 2 2 3 4 7 6 0 Step 2:
5 Dijkstra’s algorithm: Example 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 3 3 2 3 4 2 2 3 4 7 6 8 0 Step 3: Dijkstra’s algorithm: Example 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 3 3 2 3 4 2 2 3 4 7 6 8 0 Step 4:

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6 Dijkstra’s algorithm: Example 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 3 3 2 3 4 2 2 3 4 7 6 8 0 Step 5: Dijkstra’s algorithm: Remark So, now we know that the lenght of the shortest path from node 1 to node 6 is 8 , but what nodes do we actually have to visit to get to node 6 on this shortest path? For this purpose you need to store one additional value for each node. Namely, whenever your update min{label(j), label(i)+c ij } yields label(i)+c ij , then you should store the value i. Because this tells you (you will see this later) that node i is the node on the shortest path to j that is visited immediately before j. At the end, you can follow this way backwards from node 6 to node 1.
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Slides4_5_color - Lecture 4/5 Shortest Path Problems...

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