THE GOLDEN AGE: In 1690 The Buccaneers decline, pirates rise.Henry Every/Thomas TewIndian Ocean (Madagascar) People wanted the suppression of Piracy after thisSpanish War: 1701-1713Privateering again, which meant Pirates are PatriotsWorking for the crown again and no longer illegalGovernor Woodes Rogers (in Bahamas) Potentially pardoned1718-22: Piracy in Caribbean, West Africa, Indian Ocean1722: Bartholomew Roberts captured. In this time, Pirate Desperation occurredBritish Navy suppression: Pirate Executions in MassesOver 200 in 10 years. FIVE Themes: BACKGROUNDSMerchant/navy sailors, privateersOptions were Naval surgeon- desertion, incapacitation, or death, or piracy. Average age:28Male, single, low class SHIPBOARD ORDERAlternative Social UniverseEgalitarianism: collective authorityCaptain: elected and equalQuartermaster: crew representativeCouncil: democratized war council RULES/ARTICLESPlunder, Share distribution Captain/Quartermaster: 1.5-2Skilled Crew: 1-1.5Unskilled: 1It was a precapitalist systemDiscipline: More allowing than Navy in consequenceCollective, Duels on Shore, Marooned men, ExecutionJUSTICE/VENGENCESocial Banditry.1718-30: Escalation of violence/terrorDeath Penalty/Bodies displayed for people to see (Blackbeard Notorious for this) COMMUNITY/JOLLY ROGERSkull and Crossbones: logbooks
1700: Flag2500 shipsOrigins? Old RogerSymbolism of Death, Violence, Limited TimeNew Providence** Pirate haven in 1715-18Spanish shipwrecksHenry Jennings: PrivateerSpanish complaints about the wrecksPirates go to New ProvidenceWoodes Rogers accepted pardon there CHARLES VANE: Attacked Woodes RogersTravels US coast to Caribbean, On French Merchant Ship?John Rackham elected CaptainVANE is shipwrecked and caught: executed at Gallows point in 1721Calico Jack, Anne Bonney and Mary ReadCalico Jack overthrew Charles Vane, Pardoned in New ProvidenceHired Anne BoneyJack, Bonny and Read all traveled on the ship WilliamANNE BONNY: Born in 1698, Ireland. "Illegitimate"Disguised as a boy to become pirateMarries James Bonny in New Providence Her husband is a pirate hunterMARY READ: Born in 1690, England. "Illegitimate" Dressed as her dead brotherHer mother was disowned by her momoServed as male servantoAge 13: Navy and army as maleMarried a soldier who died in 1700.Travelled to west Indies on a Dutch Ship which was captured by PiratesIn New Providence she joins the William when encountering RackhamThe Three were very successful: 7 fishing boats, 2 sloops, a schooner led by Bonny and Read.At their last fight, the ship was disabled, Rackham surrendered, Bonny and Read fought to the end Jack is executed on November 18, 1720Bonny/Read Trail: Convicted but Pregnant to the executions stayed Historical Context: Passing as men, pirate gender norms?