Endocrine system study guide Endocrine vs. exocrine glands. Paracrine and autocrine effects. Classification of hormones by chemical structure: water-soluble and lipid-soluble, know examples of each class. Hormone receptors – their location and functions. Target cells specificity. Receptor mechanisms. Second messengers and direct gene regulation. Receptor downregulation and its role. Regulation of endocrine system: hypothalamo-pituitary hormones, metabolites, ANS. Specific glands – know location, general structure, which hormones they make and the effects of these hormones: Hypothalamus- Gonatropin, GH, thyrotropin, antidiuretic, corticotropin releasing hormone, oxytocin, somatostatin Pituitary gland: anterior and posterior Anterior pituitary Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) ,hyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH),Luteinising hormone (LH) Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH),Prolactin (PRL),Growth hormone (GH),Melanocyte- stimulating hormone (MSH) Posterior –ADH, oxytocin Pineal gland- melatonin Thyroid- thyroxine, Triiodothyronine or T3,Tetraiodothyronine, , or T4,Calcitonin. Parathyroid- parathyroid hormone Pancreas -insulin, glucagon, somatostatine, pancreatic polypetide Adrenals: cortex and medulla- aldosterone,cortisol, androgens, amino acids Gonads- estrogen, progesterone Hormones made by other (non-endocrine) organs: heart -ANP secretion causes kidnesy to secrete salt&water decreasing blood volume and blood pressure , liver- makes different proteins, angiotensinogen and IGF , kidney, maintains ion balance and volume, EPO(low epo+anemia) and renin(blood pressure regulation) , digestive system -ghrelin increases appetite , adipose tissue leptin decreases appetite. Deficiency causes obesity . Pineal gland makes melatonin Common endocrine disorders. diabetes mellitus, acromegaly (overproduction of growth hormone), Addison’s disease (decreased production of hormones by the adrenal glands), Cushing’s syndrome (high cortisol levels for extended periods of time), Graves’ disease (type of hyperthyroidism resulting in excessive thyroid hormone production), Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (autoimmune disease resulting in hypothyroidism and low production of thyroid hormone), hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid), hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid), and prolactinoma (overproduction of prolactin by the pituitary gland). Pathologies associated with pituitary hormones excess or insufficiency. Prolactinoma overproduces prolactin.pituitary tumors. GH, LH deficiency The best way to practice is to write down complete answers for each question. Try to answer the questions from memory, like it is a real exam.
If you don’t know the answer right away you can look it up in the notes or textbook. If you still cannot find an answer, make a note about it and we will discuss it during the review session before the exam.