APUSHTest7Review - Ruby Pg 562-568 574-575 582-583 590-595 615-618 The Making of Radical Reconstruction(562-568 Andrew Johnson Lincolns successor firm

APUSHTest7Review - Ruby Pg 562-568 574-575 582-583 590-595...

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Ruby: Pg. 562-568, 574-575, 582-583, 590-595, 615-618 The Making of Radical Reconstruction (562-568) Andrew Johnson: Lincoln’s successor; firm believer in state’s rights Served in the state legislature, the US Congress, & 2 terms as governor of TN Believed African-Americans had no role to play in the Reconstruction Reconstruction: Offered a pardon that restored political & property rights to nearly all white southerners who took an oath of allegiance Excluded Confederate leaders & extremely wealthy planters However, later most of these people received individual pardons from president Only 1 Confederate leader was executed, Henry Wirz, who owned a prison where many Union soldiers died Appointed provisional governors to establish loyal gov’ts in the South, under the condition that they abolish slavery, repudiate secession, and refuse to pay Confederate debt However, white voters returned prominent Confederates to power Violence against former slaves & northerners continued Black Codes: Laws passed by new S. gov’ts that attempted to regulate the lives of blacks Legalized marriage, ownership of property, & limited access to courts Denied rights to testify against whites, serve on juries or state militias, or to vote Those who didn’t sign yearly labor contracts could be arrested & hired out to white landowners Children could be assigned to work for their former owners w/o consent of the parents Radical Republicans Prominent leaders were Charles Sumner & Thaddeus Stevens Stevens wanted to confiscate land of disloyal planters & divide it among former slaves & northern migrants Congress assembles in Dec. 1865: Johnson announces that w/ loyal S. gov’ts, nation was reunited RRs call for dissolution of these gov’ts & new ones w/ rebels excluded from power & blacks guaranteed the vote Republicans had overwhelming majority in Congress, but the party was divided Moderates: Johnson’s plan was flawed, but wanted to work with him to modify it; left Johnson gov’ts in place Origins of Civil Rights Early 1866: Senator Trumbull proposed 2 bills, extending the life of the Freedman’s Bureau; and the Civil Rights Bill, defining all ppl born in the US as citizens & their rights Johnson vetoed both bills b/c both would take away state power + blacks don’t deserve citizenship
Later on in 1866 the Freedman’s Bureau’s life was extended to 1870, though they missed the opportunity to override the veto by 1 vote 14th Amendment: principle of citizenship for all ppl born in the US & empowered the federal gov’t to protect the rights of all Americans July 1868: ratified the 14th Amendment Proposed in 1866 but no Democrats voted for it It also prohibits states from abridging privileges & immunities of citizens or denying them equal protection of the law Didn’t grant blacks the vote but said if state barrs the vote from any group of men the state’s representation in Congress would decrease

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