mybe - HUN 4445 Review Questions for Exam 3 FOCUS MORE ON...

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HUN 4445 -- Review Questions for Exam 3 -- FOCUS MORE ON NUTRITION 1. How does the body’s nutrient utilization change in the fed vs fasted state? Fed - 1-2 hours Initiated by ingestion of carbohydrate -- Release of Insulin -- Stimulates Glycogen, TG & Protein synthesis - Nutrient uptake into tissues = ANABOLIC Stimulates glycogenesis, glycolysis, and hepatic protein and fatty acid synthesis Inhibits lipolysis, proteolysis, gluconeogenesis & glycogen breakdown Fasted - > 12 hours or more Initiated by Break down of body tissues after not consuming for 12 or more hours - Levels of nutrients in the blood are decreased = CATABOLIC Liver shifts to gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis LIVER SWITCHES FROM GLUCOSE USE TO GLUCOSE PRODUCTION Still at this point the Fatty Acids being broken down into Acetyl Coa -- we still have significant moving to Glucose production -- Change as we move to starvation state - Still maintaining Blood glucose levels NOT PRODUCING A LOT OF KETONES AT THIS POINT Tissues (other than brain, RBCs and nervous tissue) begin to use fatty acids, ketones and glucogenic amino acids for energy Increased Lipolysis
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2. What hormones are involved in nutrient utilization and what are their major effects? Insulin - Signals FED state status hormone produced by the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas to regulate blood glucose; it promotes uptake, utilization and storage of nutrients Glucagon hormone produced by the alpha cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas that works in concert with insulin to maintain blood glucose levels; it promotes glycogenolysis & gluconeogenesis and lipolysis while inhibiting glycogenesis and TG synthesis 3. What are the differences between a catabolic and an anabolic state? Catabolic - Nutrient levels in the blood are decreased - Break down body tissues Fasted State Metabolic Stress: the body's hyper-metabolic, catabolic response to acute injury or disease. Anabolic - Nutrients taken up & stored in tissues ( In response to insulin release ) Fed State in a NON STRESSED SITUATION 4. What are the three types of malnutrition (etiology-based)? Starvation- Related Malnutrition - Inflammation Not Present Pure Chronic Starvation, anorexia nervosa Easiest to Fix Chronic Disease-Related Malnutrition - Inflammation Mild-Moderate Organ Failure, Pancreatic Cancer, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Sarcopenic Obesity Acute Disease or Injury Related Malnutrition - Inflammation Marked Inflammatory Response Major Infection, Burns, Trauma, Closed Head Injury ^^ 5 Questions From This Section: Fed/Fasted State ^^ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ 5. What are the dietary factors that may initiate carcinogenesis? Aflatoxin Mold in Peanuts/Peanut Butter --> Peanut Recall Heterocyclic Amines (HCA) & Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) Produced by how we choose to cook our meat: Grilling, broiling, barbecuing, deep- frying and smoking meats HAC - Produced by exposure of muscle protein to high heat PAH - Produced from
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