Epidemiology Past

Epidemiology Past - Epidemiology Past Present 8:54:00 AM...

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Epidemiology Past & Present 30/01/2008 08:54:00 Chapter 1 -epidemiology: study of distrib., determinants of health relates states or events, application of this study to control of health problems - unit of control : aggregate of human beings aim of public health-reduce injury, disability, disease, death, premature death to population -disease: medically definable physiological or psychological dysfunction illness: what patient experiences sickness: state of dysfunction of social role of a person w/ disease -morbidity: events & factors related to or caused by disease/ disability -mortality: refers to death -endemic: occurring near/ at normal rate of occurrence -epidemic: occurrence of disease in clear excess of normalcy -pandemic: epidemic affecting several countries or continents definitions of health-culturally specific; quality of life important in all cultures -uses of epidemiology historical study of community health; projections for future community diagnosis of health and disease among population; taking into account that society & health problems are changing study workings of health services estimate individual chances, risks of disease help complete the clinical picture identifying syndromes from distrib. of clinical phenomena among sect. of population
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search for causes of health and disease -epidemiologic translation: focus on dramatic changes in morbidity, mortality occurring in relation to demographic, biologic, socioeconomic factors during 20 th century predominance of noninfectious diseases as cause of mortality, morbidity demographic transition: people living longer, getting CV disease, diabetes, cancer- origins in lifestyle factors (smoking, sedentary lifestyle -new investigatory tools: filed surveys, cohort studies, case-control studies, clinical trials => identified risk factors -CV disease mortality went down -external causes of death imp. contributors to overall mortality -respiratory cancer-increase between 1950 and 1990, but decline from 1990 from 1992 -life expectancy of newborns ↑↑ due to better sanitation, improved nutrition, smaller family size, better provision of uncontaminated water, control of vectors, pasteurization of milk, better infant/child care, immunization -life expectancy of older age groups - tech. improvements, med care improvements,
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