exam 2 study guide - Exam 2 Study Guide Infuences oF...

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Exam 2 Study Guide Influences of Malaria on History 2. What were the members of the deadly triangle for vivax malaria in England? In Jamestown? What would have been the outcome if there hadn’t been a mosquito in America capable of transmitting the malaria parasite? England- included a human host, insect vector (Anopheles m.), and the disease organism (Vivax) Jamestown- Included the human host and disease organism. (the insect vector was not present.) 3. Southeastern England experienced a major malaria (vivax) outbreak in the early 1600s. What were one environmental factor and one human factor that helped make conditions ideal for the mosquitoes? Drainage ditches were created, making large areas of stagnant, brackish water, perfect for the larvae of An. Maculipennis to thrive Human factors: poor job at draining tidal marshes, creating pools of stagnant water; human population increasing after plague, moved towards the coast for farming near a hungry, increasing population of mosquitoes 4. How (by whom) was vivax malaria carried to Jamestown? It was carried to Jamestown through people because it was able to survive in the humans traveling to America, but the mosquitos at the time could not. 5. Differential immunity of Europeans and Africans to vivax malaria may have provided an economic case for slavery of Africans. What was the basis of the Africans’ immunity to vivax malaria? Why did that immunity make Africans less expensive (more economical) workers? They had better immunity to the disease and were not dying as much as the indentured servants. True or False 6. Malaria originated in the Americas and was transported to Europe and Africa after Columbus discovered America. FALSE 7. People that lack the Duffy docking protein for the malaria parasite are immune to vivax malaria. FALSE 8. No cost effective, medically effective vaccine for malaria exists at this time. TRUE
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Yellow Fever Malaria in North America 10. Different levels of immunity to disease between two groups of people can change the dynamic of their interactions, particular in drawn out conflicts (wars). Clearly explain why? The colonists in America had survived and grown acquired immunity to malaria British soldiers were generally not from malaria infested areas and were completely vulnerable 12. How were mosquitos involved in the failure of the British Southern Strategy for ending the Revolutionary War? The British soldiers were exposed to malaria via the mosquitos and were getting sick making them incapable of doing anything. Yellow Fever 13. Yellow fever has both urban and jungle transmission cycles. What are these and why does the existence of a jungle cycle make it difficult to completely eradicate yellow fever? Jungle Transmission Cycle- transmission without people.
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