Kalīla wa Dimna EI [1]

Kalīla wa Dimna EI [1] - Kalla wa Dimna...

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Kalīla wa Dimna Title of an Indian mirror for princes, formed by the corruption of the Sanskrit names of the two principal characters, two jackals, Karaṭaka and Damanaka (in the old Syriac translation the forms are still Kalīlag and Damnag). It was translated from Sanskrit into Pahlavi and thence into Arabic , and became widely known in Muslim as well as Christian literatures. 1. The original work. The Indian original was composed by an unknown Vis̲h̲nuite Brahman, according to Hertel probably about the year 300 A.D. in Kas̲h̲mīr; the main argument for this, the transcription of denarius by dīnāra is, however, not conclusive, as the pronunciation of the η as i is older than Hertel supposes (see also A. Berriedale Keith in J RAS , 1915, 505). It consisted of an introduction and five books, each of which bore the name tantra, i.e. , “occasion of good sense”. The book was intended to instruct princes in the laws of polity by means of animal-fables composed in perfect Sanskrit. The oldest descendant of the original work is the Tantrākhyāyika , rediscovered by J . Hertel (see Tantrākhyāyika, die älteste Fassung des Pañcatantra , tr. from the Sanskrit with intro. and notes by J . Hertel, 2 parts, Leipzig-Berlin 1909). A second recension of the original work is called the Añcatantra , J . G. L. Kosegarten published an uncritical mixed text (Bonn 1848); on this Th. Benfey based his translation, Pantschatantra, fünf Bücher indischer Fabeln, Märchen und Erzählungen , tr. from the Sanskrit with intro. and notes, 2 vols., Leipzig 1859. In the introduction to this work the history of the spread of Indian literary themes to Europe was first exhaustively investigated. 2. The Pahlavi translation. A rather early recension of the Pañcatantra was translated from Sanskrit into Pahlavi by order of the Sasanian king h ̲ usraw Anūs ̲ h ̲ arwān (531-579) by his physician Burzōe, whom he had sent to India for this purpose, and expanded by the addition of an appendix of fables from other Indian sources; of these the three first (chap. 11-13 in de Sacy) are taken from the twelfth book of the Mahābhārata ( ibid. , chap. 138, 139, 111); the other five (de Sacy's chap. 14, 15, 18, 18 and the story of the king of the mice, see below, not given in de Sacy) have so far not been found in Indian literature , although there is no reason to doubt their Indian origin. Burzōe prefaced his translation with an autobiographical introduction which the vizier Buzurd̲j̲mihr, it appears, signed with his own name as an honour to the author (see
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Burz es Einleitung zu dem Buch Kal la wa-Dimna ō ī , tr. and annot. by Th. Nöldeke, Schriften der wissensch. Gesellsch. in Strassburg , fasc. 12, Strasbourg 1912).
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Kalīla wa Dimna EI [1] - Kalla wa Dimna...

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