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Psychoanalytic Theoretical Views Name of theory: Psychoanalytic Founder of the theory: Sigmund Freud, further developed by Erik Erikson & Carl Jung View of human nature (include innate capacities/capabilities and motivational constructs): human nature is primarily deterministic (Corey, 2009) our behaviors are influenced and shaped by motivations from our unconscious, our biology, our instincts, and the psychosexual experiences of our first 6 years (Corey, 2009) Freud believed that instincts were very influential and include libido (sexual energy/instincts), life instincts (survival, growth, creativity), and death instincts (aggressive drives) (Corey, 2009) psychoanalytic theory emphasizes the influence of our past and our subconscious on the development of our personalities (Corey, 2009) View of pathology/maladjustment (how do individuals develop dysfunction/mental illness): conflict is at the center of most pathology and maladjustment (Corey, 2009) Freud believed that unresolved issues from the psychosexual stages during thew first 6 years of life were the root for the majority of all mental health issues (Corey, 2009) if one did not have all their needs met during a particular psychosocial stage then they may become fixated in that stage and fail to emotionally or psychologically progress causing one to behave in ways that were psychologically immature later (Corey, 2009) Erikson held a similar belief in unresolved conflict, but developed a series of psychosocial stages that did not end with childhood (Corey, 2009) Erikson's stages carry on throughout the entire lifespan and identified a series of crises that occur at various times from birth to death (Corey, 2009) when an individual fails to resolve a crisis, they may stagnate and fail to psychologically mature past that particular stage even as they continue to age (Corey, 2009) View of well-functioning individual: well functioning individual is able to resolve past conflicts, accept emotional problems, understand the historical origins of their struggles, and can combine their understanding of the troubles in their past as they relate to their current relationships (Corey, 2009). View of the change process: psychoanalytical theory probes deep in to the past to achieve self awareness and understanding which is believed to be vital for a change in behavior and personality (Corey, 2009)
the entire process is aimed at achieving and experiencing personal insight through delving into the memories and feelings associated with the client's past and their current understanding of the self (Corey, 2009) Roles and Goals Counseling relationship/counselor role: classical psychoanalytical counselors typically take a "blank screen" approach, meaning that they rarely self-disclose and maintain as much neutrality as possible, allowing the client to project feelings onto the counselor, creating a transference relationship (Corey, 2009) these therapists take a more distanced approach, acting as bystanders and commentators to the counseling relationship (Corey, 2009)