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Presentation ARA 101 'Abbasids [1]

Presentation ARA 101 'Abbasids [1] - Caliphal Succession...

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Caliphal Succession: The ‘Abbasid  Caliphate
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The ‘Abbasid Caliphate   The  ‘Abbasid  period  in  its  entirety  covers approximately half a millennium spanning the years 132/750 to 656/1258. Consequently, historians have divided  the  period  into  three  sub-periods.  The  primary  era,  being  known  as  the  first  ‘Abbasid  period (132/750-247/861), is generally regarded as a  period of growth and prosperity, having built upon  the successes of the Umayyads. This is followed by  the  second  ‘Abbasid  period  (247/861-447/1055), which is regarded as era of political decline, due to  the  events  leading  to  the  loss  of  ‘Abbasid  power.  Finally,  there  is  the  third  ‘Abbasid  period,  which  includes  the  eventual  collapse  of  the  caliphate  (447/1055-565/1258). 
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The ‘Abbasid Caliphate   Their claim to authority came through their familial link to the Prophet’s uncle al-‘Abbas and they would  later counter the ‘Alid claim to authority - since they  were also of Prophetic lineage - by showing that their link  was  through  a  male  relative,  i.e.  al-‘Abbas  and  not  through  a  female  one,  i.e.  Fatima,  the  Prophet’s  daughter,  which  was  apparently  still  an  important  factor despite this being a supposed post- jahili , Arab  society. This call, or  da‘wa , proved very popular and  gained great support in the eastern provinces generally  and in Khurasan in particular. Subsequently, it would be  support  from  this  province  that  would  bring  the  ‘Abbasids to ascendancy and remain their powerbase for years to come.
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The ‘Abbasid Caliphate The  seemingly  religious  overtone  to their claim of legitimacy as rulers was  consolidated  by  their  adoption  of honorific  titles  ( alqab ,  sin.  laqab ),  which  was  unprecedented  and seemingly added to their apparent link with  God  and  later,  by  their  patronising  of  religious  learning, which equally added to their claim of ‘orthodoxy’.
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The ‘Abbasid Caliphate   T heir  powerbase  constituted  a  departure  from  the  ‘Arab  aristocracy’  of  the  Umayyads,  since  the  majority  of  their  supporters  were  in  fact  of  Persian  origin.  Thus,  the  early  ‘Abbasid  period  became  synonymous  with  the  rise  of  the  Persian  ‘clients’  or  mawali ,  who  occupied  key  positions  in  the  ‘Abbssid  administration  and  who  seemingly  ‘Persianised’  the  running of the state along the lines of the  old Sasanian model.
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The ‘Abbasid Caliphate The rise of the ‘Abbasids was mainly due to on the one  hand  to  the  lack  of  popularity  of  the Umayyads, who were seen as a debauched, ‘pro-
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